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Table 2 Growth factors and cytokines for improving renal microcirculation

From: The renal microcirculation in chronic kidney disease: novel diagnostic methods and therapeutic perspectives

Setting Intervention Mechanism Effects References
Chronic renovascular desease (unilateral renal artery stenosis) Vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) Restored microvascular density Attenuated fibrogenic activity and improved kidney blood flow and GFR [81]
Renal interstitial fibrosis (monocrotline treated rats) Glucagon-Like Peptide-1(GLP) Reduced microcirculation lesion and inhibit EndMT Reduced microcirculation lesion-induced renal fibrosis [82]
Renal interstitial fibrosis (UUO model) Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) Stimulated the growth of peritubular capillaries and dampened renal inflammation Attenuated myofibroblast activation and interstitial collagen I accumulation [83]
Renal interstitial fibrosis (UUO model) Insulin-Like Growth Factor- 1 (IGF-1R) Preserved endothelial function by stabilization of the VE-protein tyrosine phosphatase/VE-cadherin complex Suppressed the inflammatory cell infiltration and renal fibrosis [85]
Chronic kidney disease (5/6 nephrectomized rats) Netrin-1 inhibited EndMT Attenuated the progression of renal dysfunction [87]