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Table 1 Methods of accessing microvessels in CKD

From: The renal microcirculation in chronic kidney disease: novel diagnostic methods and therapeutic perspectives

Methods Applications Advantages Disadvantages References
Synchrotron radiation (SR) Visualizing proximal tubules, glomeruli and renal arterioles Non-invasive method; visualizing the smaller arteriole Can not fully reflect the three-dimensional structures within kidneys [61]
Micro-computed tomography (μCT) Quantitative monitoring for anatomical and functional changes of vascular alterations Non-invasive method; user- friendliness; operator independence; quantitative assessment X-ray exposure; the need for iodine- based contrast agents; [30, 65]
FMA-method Assessing the microvascular architecture of the kidney Enabled the three-dimensional reconstruction; quantitative assessment Sacrifice of the animals [29, 67]
BOLD-MRI Accessing tissue oxygen metabolism and indirectly evaluating the microcirculation Noninvasive method; without exposure to radiation or exogenous contrast agents; high spatial resolution The R2* value is easily affected; the absence of cortico- medullary differentiation [74]
Electron microscopy Visualizing subtle ultrastructure of the endothelium Visualizing the very early changes to endothelium Sacrifice of the animals; the potential sampling error [9]
Intravital Multiphoton Microscopy (MPM) Quantitative evaluations of numerous renal functions Noninvasive; high-resolution Motion artifact; endogenous autofluorescence; long time image collection [77, 78]