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Table 3 Lipid-related enzymes and bioactive lipids in exosomes

From: Exosomes: biogenesis, biologic function and clinical potential

lipid category and description Lipid related enzymes Functional effects
LTA4, LTB4, LTC4 LTA4 hydrolase, LTC4 synthase Triggering polymorphonuclear [131] leukocyte migration
PGE2, 15d-PGJ2 COX-1, COX-2 Immunosuppression, [44] PPARγ ligand
PGE2 PGE synthase Inflammation [4]
PA PLD2, DGK Increasing exosome production [132, 133]
AA, LPC cPLA2, iPLA2 Accounting for the membrane curvature [44]
/ sPLA2 IIA, sPLA2 V Prostaglandin biosynthesis [44]
Ceramides nSMase2 Sorting cargo into MVBs [134]
Cholesterol / Regulating exosome secretion [135]
BMP / MVB formation [135] and subsequent ILV biogenesis [136]
PS / Being involved in exosome fate [13, 122]
SM / Triggering calcium influx [135]
  1. LA4, LTB4, LTC4 Leukotriene; COX-1, COX-2 cyclooxygenases; PGE2, 15d-PGJ2 prostaglandins; PLD2 phospholipase D2; DGK diglyceride kinase; PA phosphatidic acid; PLA2 phospholipases A2; cPLA2 calcium-dependent phospholipases A2; iPLA2 calcium-independent phospholipases A2; AA arachidonic acid; LPC lysophosphatidylcholine; sPLA2 IIA; V secreted phospholipases A2 IIA and V; nSMase2 neutral sphingomyelinase 2; BMP Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate, also called LBPA; PS phosphatidylserine; SM sphingomyelin