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Table 1 Role of microbubbles in different diseases and in different clinical trials

From: Artificial intelligence and guidance of medicine in the bubble

S. No Name Type Disease type Role Technology Clinical trials
1 The Role of Different Imaging Methods in the Diagnosis of Gallbladder Polyps Interventional Polyp of Gallbladder Preoperative differential diagnostic accuracies of gallbladder polypoid lesions Device: Abdominal high-resolution CT
Device: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography Procedure: Cholecystectomy
2 Novel MRI-Guided Ultrasound Stimulated Microbubble Radiation Treatment for Patients with Chest-wall and Locally-Advanced Breast Cancer Interventional Breast Cancer Novel MRI-guided ultrasound stimulated microbubble treatment enhances radiation effects in humans receiving external beam radiotherapy delivered using radiation therapy device Patients with locally advanced breast cancer and chest wall tumours will receive MRI-guided ultrasound-stimulated microbubble-treatment combined with radiotherapy NCT04431674
3 The Use of Focused Ultrasound and Microbubble Infusion for Altering Brain Perfusion and the Blood Brain Barrier Interventional Low Grade Glioma of Brain The ability of focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles to open the blood brain barrier has the potential to revolutionize the delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain, allowing for more localized and efficient delivery The ultrasound treatment will last either 1 h or 20 min total time for the DWL device. An infusion of Definity microbubbles will be infused intravenously over ten to thirty minutes as per routine approved application. Definity will be 1.3 mL added to 50 mL saline and infused no faster than 4 mL/minute NCT04063514
4 Microbubbles and Ultrasound in Stroke Trial Interventional Acute Ischemic Stroke Transcranial 2-MHz ultrasound combined with intravenous administration of microbubbles improves early recanalization in patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by middle cerebral artery proximal occlusion treated with intravenous alteplase within 3 h of symptom onset Radiation: Ultrasound 2-MHz, low intensity transcranial ultrasound
Drug: Levovist D-Galactose and palmitic palmitique intravenous 4 g
5 Microbubble Cavitation for Improving Hepatocellular Carcinoma Radioembolization Interventional Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Liver Cancer
Localized microbubble cavitation triggered by noninvasive ultrasound has been shown to sensitize malignant tissue to radiotherapy by inducing vascular endothelial cell apoptosis Patients receive perflutren protein-type A microspheres IV over 10 min and undergo CEUS over 60 min at 1–6 h post radioembolization and at approximately 7 and 14 days after yttrium Y-90 radioembolization NCT03199274
6 Targeted Delivery of Chemotherapy with Ultrasound and Microbubbles (SONCHIMIO) Interventional Colorectal Cancer
Hepatic Metastases
The oscillations of ultrasound (US) contrast agent microbubbles under their activation by US waves engender a modulation of the permeability of biological barriers amplifying hence the extravasation of drugs/fluorescent markers through a process known as sonoporation Liver metastases randomized to receive sonoporation (US waves + gaseous microbubbles). The patient continues to receive the usual systemic chemotherapy NCT03458975