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Table 1 Differences between M1 and M2 macrophages

From: Mechanism of mesenchymal stem cells in spinal cord injury repair through macrophage polarization

Types Inducing factor Molecular marker Characteristic cytokine
M1 macrophages TH1 cytokines (such as IFN-γ, lipopolysaccharide, TNF-α) iNOS, CD16/32, CD80, CD86,
IL-1β, IL-12, IL-6, IL-23, TNF-α, IFN-γ
M2 macrophages TH2 cytokines (such as IL-4, IL-10, IL-13) CD206, CD163, Arg1, Fizz1, YM1 IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, TGF-β