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Table 1 Summary of concentration and purification methods for isolating sEVs from pancreatic cancer cells

From: Comparative evaluation of methods for isolating small extracellular vesicles derived from pancreatic cancer cells

Process Method Advantages Disadvantages Possible suggestions Recommendation
Concentration UC High yield High equipment cost NA Suitable for concentrating medium
Co-P Convenient Non-exosomal contaminants NA NA
UF Convenient Non-exosomal contaminants NA NA
Purification UC High yield
High equipment cost Fully re-suspend the crude sEVs NA
SEC High purity
Up-scale isolation
Require methodological validation Lengthen the column and increase the sepharose
Slow down the flow rate
Lower the temperature
DGUC Small EVs
High purity
Require methodological study
Time-consuming centrifugation
High equipment cost
Pilot test for exploring suitable gradient solutions Suitable for therapeutic study
IAC Small EVs
High purity
Low yield
Subtype of sEVs
Personalized customization depending on aim of study Suitable for biomarker study
  1. Co-P, Co-precipitation; DGUC, Density gradient ultracentrifugation; EV, Extracellular vesicles; IAC, Immunoaffinity capture; NA, Not available; SEC, Size exclusion chromatography; UC, Ultracentrifugation; UF, Ultrafiltration