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Table 3 Exosomal cargoes in retroviral infection

From: The versatile role of exosomes in human retroviral infections: from immunopathogenesis to clinical application

Exosome cargo Origin of exosome Target cell Function References
Protein Nef HIV-1 infected cells T cells Making the latent cells more vulnerable to HIV infection [72]
T cells T cells Inhibiting the generation of CD4 + EVs from T cells [73]
Macrophages T cells Inhibiting T cell function via beta-COP-dependent pathway and degradation of MHC-I and CD4 + molecules [76]
HIV-1-infected macrophages B cells Inhibiting the adaptive immune response by deterring the IgA and IgG production in B lymphocytes [77]
HIV-1 infected cells Macrophages Increasing secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines [91]
Plasma from patients with HAD SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells HAND progression [98]
HIV-infected microglia Microglia HIV-induced neuropathogenesis [99]
CCR5 PBMNCs and CCR5 + ovary cells CCR5-null cells Enhancing HIV-1 infection [78]
CXCR4 Megakaryocytes and platelets CXCR4-null cell Enhancing HIV-1 infection [79]
APOBEC3G HIV-infected cells PBMCs Preventing virus production [82]
cGAMP HIV-infected cells DCs Interferon upregulation [83, 84]
Tat and TAR CSF samples of HIV-positive individuals Not Assigned Inducing pro-inflammatory responses [87]
Tat Tat-expressing primary astrocytes SHSY-5Y Neurite reduction and neuron death [97]
Notch4 and oxidative stress markers Plasma of HIV + patients THP-1 monocyte cells Inducing pro-inflammatory responses [92]
Fibronectin and galectin-3 HIV-1 infected DCs T-cells Up-regulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines expression [93]
Tax HTLV-1-infected cells Microglia cells Inducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines [132]
HAM/TSP patients PBMCs and CSF samples Uninfected PBMCs Lessening the CD4 + CD25 + T cells [133]
mRNAs & miRs TAR HIV-infected cells 293 T cells Protecting cells from apoptosis for production of virus in infected cells [80]
HIV-infected cells Primary macrophages or mouse neuronal cells Stimulating the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α, the pro-inflammatory cytokines [88]
HIV-infected T cells HSC3 HNSCC and H1299 lung cancer cells Development of lung cancer and HNSCC [102]
vmiR88 and vmiR99 HIV-infected macrophages and the sera of HIV + individuals THP-1 macrophages Inducing an inflammatory response [85]
miRNA-29b Astrocytes treated with both morphine and HIV Tat Neurons Downregulation of PDGF-B expression and neuronal cell death [94]
miRNA-155-5p HIV-infected T cells Cervical cancer cells Up-regulating the expression of cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8 [100]
Tax and HBZ HTLV-1-infected cells PBMCs Infection progression [128]