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Table 1 Chemical and pharmacological agents for targeting exosome biogenesis, secretion, and uptake

From: Potential roles and prognostic significance of exosomes in cancer drug resistance

  Drug/Compound Mechanism Ref.
Inhibition of exosome biogenesis and secretion GW4869 Targeting neutral sphingomyelinase 2 [29]
Manumycin Inhibition of Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway [99]
Indomethacin Blocking the expression of ABCA-3 [33]
Ketotifen Unknown [100]
Chloramidine and bisindolylmaleimide-I Unknown [101]
Lansoprazole (proton pump inhibitor) Decreasing microenvironmental acidity [96]
Inhibition of exosome internalization Heparin Inhibition of HSPG mediated endocytosis [104]
Cytochalasin D Inhibition of actin polymerization [105]
Dynasore Inhibition of the GTPase activity of dynamin [106]
Chlorpromazine Inhibition of clathrin-dependent endocytosis [107]
Methyl-β-cyclodextrin Remove cholesterol from the cell membrane [108]
Nystatin and Simvastatin* Inhibition of the lipid raft -mediated endocytosis pathway/*Inhibitor of HMG-CoA [109]
Filipin III Inhibitor of lipid raft dependent and caveolar endocytosis [88]