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Table 2 Clinical trials conducted using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of SCI

From: Treatment of spinal cord injury with mesenchymal stem cells

References Acute, subactute or chronic AIS grade Number of patients Sources of MSCs Route of administration Number of cells Frequency of injection Safety outcome Efficacy outcome
[40] Chronic A and B 10 BM Intrathecal 1.48 × 108 BMSCs 3 (every 4 weeks) No AE Improvement in ASIA score, SEP and EMG
[41] Subacute and chronic A and B 10 BM Intrathecal 1.48 × 108 BMSCs 3 (every 4 weeks) No AE Long-term follow-up (30–40 months) showed that 3 patients with AIS grade B demonstrated improvement in motor power of the upper extremities, activities of daily living and positive electrophysiological changes. MRI showed reduction in cavity size and presence of fiber-like low signal intensity steaks
[42] Chronic B 16 BM Intrathecal 4.8 × 107 1 No AE 2/16 patients showed improvement in motor power of the upper extremities. Study was prematurely terminated due to poor results
[43] Subacute A, B and C 5 BM Intrathecal 3–5 × 107 BMSCs 1 No AE Significant improvement in patients with AIS grade B and C only
[44] Chronic A and B 70 BM Intrathecal 2 × 106 BMSCs/kg b.w. 1–8 (monthly) No AE 17/50 patients treated with cell therapy + physiotherapy showed improvement in AIS grade. 0/20 patients received physiotherapy only exhibited changes in AIS grade
[45] Subacute A 31 BM Intrathecal 7 × 105 to 1.2 × 106 BMSCs 1 No AE 5/11 (45%) patients received BMSCs showed improvement in AIS grade from A to C compared to 3/20 (15%) patients in the control group
[46] Subacute and chronic A and C 30 BM Intrathecal 1 × 106 BMSCs/kg b.w. 2–3 (weekly) No AE No changes in AIS grade. Variable pattern of recovery in Barthel Index. No significant changes in SEP, MEP and NCV
[47] Chronic A, B, C and D 11 BM Intrathecal 3 × 108 BMSCs 3 (every 3 months) No AE Improvement in ASIA pin prick score, ASIA light touch score, ASIA motor score, IANR-SCIFRS score, VAS score and bladder function
[48] Chronic A 14 BM Intraspinal 5 × 106 BMSCs/cm3 lesion volume 1 No AE 7/12 patients showed improvement in AIS grade
[49] Chronic A 40 BM Intraspinal 2 × 107 BMSCs 1 No AE 9/20 patients showed improvement in AIS grade from A to B
[50] Chronic A, B and C 20 BM Intraspinal 1 × 108 BMSCs 1 No AE 4/8 (50%), 3/4 (75%) and 8/8 (100%) patients with AIS grade A, B and C respectively showed improvement in AIS grade
[51] Subacute and chronic A, B and C 20 BM Intra-arterial and intravenous 104 ± 44.3 × 108 BMMCs 1 No AE Improvement in ASIA score in patients who received the cell therapy at the subacute phase and transplantation close to the lesion site (through arteria vertebralis)
[52] Acute and chronic A, B and C 8 BM Intraspinal, intrathecal and intravenous 4 × 108 BMMCs 1 No AE 6/8 patients showed improvement in AIS grade. The patients also showed improvement in Frankel grade, Ashworth score and ASIA score
[53] Subacute A 1 BM Intrathecal, intravenous 3.7 × 109 BMNCs &
1.54 × 108 BMSCs
6 (every 3–4 months) No AE Improvement in AIS grade to C/D
[54] Chronic 56 BM Intrathecal 1 × 106 BMNCs/kg b.w. 1 No AE 4 patients showed improvement in AIS grade and 24 patients have improved FIM score
  1. MSCs Mesenchymal stem cells, AIS ASIA Impairment Scale, BM bone marrow, AE adverse event, EMG electromyography, SEP somatosensory evoked potential, ASIA American Spinal Injury Association, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, BMMCs bone marrow mononuclear cells, BMNCs bone marrow nucleated cells, FIM Functional Independence Measure, MEP motor-evoked potentials, NCV nerve conduction velocity, IANR-SCIFRS International Association of Neurorestoratology Spinal Cord Injury Functional Rating Scale, VAS Visual Analogue Scale