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Table 1 Diverse Fndc5/Irisin functions and the associated signaling pathways

From: New insights into the cellular activities of Fndc5/Irisin and its signaling pathways

Source of irisin/Fndc5 Target cells/tissue Signaling pathway Effects References
Mouse embryoid bodies Mouse Embryoid Bodies ERK1/2 MAPK pathway Facilitates neural differentiation [8]
Recombinant irisin White Adipocytes p38 and ERK MAP Kinase Browning of white adipocytes [21]
Conditioned medium of 3T3-L1 cell line and myoblast Primary rat osteoblast and MC3T3-E1 cell line and bone marrow stromal cells p38 and ERK MAP Kinase Osteoblast proliferation and differentiation [27,28,29]
Recombinant irisin Human endothelial cell ERK1/2 MAPK Endothelial cell proliferation [34]
Recombinant irisin Primary-cultured myoblasts and L6 cells P38 MAPK Glucose uptake [35]
circulating irisin Skeletal muscle p38 MAPK and ERK MAPK Insulin sensitivity [40]
Recombinant irisin H19-7 hippocampal cell lines STAT3 H19-7 cell proliferation [47]
Fndc5 overexpression circulating irisin Adipose tissue AMPK pathway Attenuates inflammation [52]
Recombinant irisin A549 and NCI-H446 lung cancer cells PI3K/AKT pathway Anti-metastatic effects [56]
Recombinant irisin U2OS cells (osteosarcoma cells) STAT3/Snail signaling pathway Anti-metastatic effects [62]
Skeletal muscle White adipose tissue AMPK-PGC1α-FNDC5 signaling pathway Browning of WAT [65]
Recombinant irisin RAW-264.7 cell line TLR4/MyD88 Signaling Pathway Anti-Inflammatory [66]
Recombinant irisin Endothelial cells AMPK-Akt-eNOS-NO Pathway Lowers Blood Pressure [68]
Recombinant irisin Cardiomyocyte and mouse heart AMPK-ULK1 and AMPK- mTOR Improves cardiac hypertrophy [82, 83]
Recombinant irisin Human cortical slices
Mouse hippocampal slices
cAMP/PKA/CREB Roles in memory formation [46]
Recombinant irisin PaCa-2 and Panc03.27 cells AMPK-mTOR Suppress pancreatic cancer cell [63]
Recombinant irisin 3T3-L1 Wnt signaling Inhibit adipogenesis [42]
Hippocampus of mice Hippocampus of mice FNDC5/BDNF/Akt antidepressant-like effect [81]