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Table 3 Retrograde signaling in tumorigenesis

From: Communication between mitochondria and other organelles: a brand-new perspective on mitochondria in cancer

Triggers Pathway Function References
mtDNA defect Cn-calcium path way EMT-like reprograming [143]
Epigenetic modification Unclear [121, 141]
Mitochondria metabolism disorder HIF-α Metabolism model shift [136]
NRF2 Cell colony capacity [1, 137, 138]
Mitochondria redox signaling Cell proliferation [139, 140]
mtDNA defect/mitochondria metabolism disorder Activation of ocogenic kinase Cancer hallmark [121]
HnRNP A2 accumulation