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Table 2 Small molecules that inhibit NMD efficiency

From: Control of gene expression through the nonsense-mediated RNA decay pathway

Compound Mechanism References
NMD inhibitors
 PI3K-like kinase inhibitors (e.g. caffeine, wortmannin) Inhibits SMG1 kinase activity [171, 172]
 NMDI1 Disrupts the interaction between SMG5 and Upf1 [174]
 NMDI14 Disrupts the interaction between SMG7 and Upf1 [158]
 Patemine A Inhibits the NMD function of eIF4A3 [23]
 5-azacytidine Promotes expression of c-Myc, which represses NMD [175]
 Cardiac glycosides (e.g. digoxin, ouabain) Increase cytoplasmic calcium, which represses NMD [137]
Translation inhibitors
 Cyclohexamide Inhibits translation [95]
 Emetine Inhibits translation [95]
 Puromycin Inhibits translation [95]
 Anisomycin Inhibits translation [95]
Translation modifiers
 Suppressor tRNAs Change stop codons into amino acid-encoding codons [164,165,166]
 PTC-124 Promotes stop codon read-through [167]
 Aminoglycosides Promotes stop codon read-through [168, 169]
 Amlexanox Promotes stop codon read-through [170]