Histograms illustrating superoxide levels in SNO cells after exposure to ESE-16 and the appropriate controls of a representative repeat. (A) Cells propogated in medium only, (B) cells exposed to DMSO – vehicle control, (C) cells exposed to actinomycin D – positive control and (D) cells exposed to ESE-16 at a concentration of 0.2 μM. Viable cells represent the population of cells which showed little or no increase in fluorescence, thus no increase. The non-viable cells represent the population of cells with an increase in fluorescence thus indicating an increase in O2 − production. The ESE-16-treated cells showed 38.17% of its population to be non-viable compared to the 21.45% non-viable population of the vehicle control.