Influence of ketone bodies on LEF2 cells. A) Appearance of cells under phase contrast microscopy following 2 days of exposure to acetoacetate (AA, 1 mg/ml), β-hydroxybutyrate (HOB, 2.5 mg/ml), or vehicle control under low-glucose (2 mM) condition. Magnification 10×. Effects of ketone bodies on B) cell death as determined by trypan blue exclusion assay, C) proliferation (MTT assay) and D) ATP levels. For graphs, error bars represent SEM. *, p < 0.05.