Up-regulation of hepatic and serum TIMP-1 levels following CCl
-induced acute or chronic liver injury in mice. A, Mice were treated with a single dose of CCl4 injection or vehicle (olive oil) injection. Liver tissues were then collected and subject to real-time PCR analysis of hepatic TIMP-1 mRNA (top panel). Sera were collected for measurement of TIMP-1 protein by ELISA (low panel). B, Mice were treated chronically with CCl4 or vehicle (olive oil) for 4 weeks. Liver tissues and sera were collected 24 and 48 h after the last injection and subject to real-time PCR (top panel) and ELISA analyses (low panel) of TIMP-1. The values from vehicle-treated group were set as 1 fold in real-time PCR analyses. Values represent means ± SEM (n = 4). *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01 in comparison with corresponding vehicle-treated groups. C, Wild-type (WT) and TIMP-1-/- mice were treated with CCl4 for 48 hours or 4 weeks. Liver tissues were collected for immunohistochemical staining with anti-TIMP-1 antibody. Representative pictures are shown (original magnification × 200).