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Table 1 Evaluation of the behaviour of TNHs nanoconstructs in biological media

From: Nanotechnological engineering of extracellular vesicles for the development of actively targeted hybrid nanodevices

Stability in cell culture medium
Time (a) Mean size (nm) (b) Concentration (part/mL) (c) Percentage decrease (as percentage) from initial t0 value
%co-ZnO
Medium TNHs Medium TNHs
t0 86 ± 4 128 ± 8 3.88 × 109 ± 3.44 × 108 3.96 × 109 ± 5.57 × 108
1 h 79 ± 5 144 ± 4 5.18 × 109 ± 1.05 × 108 6.42 × 109 ± 4.25 × 108 − 17 ± 3%
24 h 78 ± 6 138 ± 3 3.60 × 109 ± 1.50 × 108 7.52 × 109 ± 1.40 × 109 − 20 ± 4%
48 h 83 ± 4 135 ± 13 4.60 × 109 ± 7.73 × 108 5.66 × 109 ± 1.23 × 109 − 15 ± 10%
(d) Clotting time in human recovered plasma
  Ctrl (plasma) Plasma + Phys. solution Plasma + Phys. solution + water Plasma + Phys. solution + water and TNHs
Time (min) 10.3 ± 0.3 10.4 ± 0.3 10.7 ± 0.5 9.5 ± 0.6
  1. (a) Mean size and (b) concentration of TNHs assessed through Nanoparticles Tracking Analysis at t0 and after 1, 24 and 48 h incubation at 37 °C in cell culture medium. (c) Estimation of the coupling efficiency after 1, 24 and 48 h incubation at 37 °C in cell culture medium expressed as percentage decrease of %co-ZnO with respect to t0. (d) Plasma clotting time measurements following the incubation with TNHs. The values for plasma alone, plasma/physiological solution, plasma/bd water and physiological solution 1:1 (v/v) are reported as controls. All experiments were conducted at least in duplicate