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Table 1 Inducers of the UPRmt

From: Insight into the mitochondrial unfolded protein response and cancer: opportunities and challenges

Inducers Functional role Impact References
Abnormal respiratory chain Dysregulation of OXPHOS ROS accumulation, decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential [17]
C8-SA Activation of DAF-16 Antioxidant stress [16]
FUS proteinopathies Interference of ATP synthase complex formation Inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthesis [26]
Heat shock Activation of HSF1, upregulation of mitochondrial chaperones Maintenance of mitochondrial proteostasis [64, 65]
Inflammation Involvement of TNF-α ROS accumulation, overload of damaged proteins [24]
Microgravity stress Not mentioned ROS accumulation, decrease in locomotion behavior [14]
Mitochondrial-related genes knockout Disorder of mitochondrial function Imbalance of mitochondrial homeostasis [17,18,19,20,21]
Nanopolystyrene Activation of ELT-2 signaling, Wnt signaling, and insulin signaling ROS accumulation, decrease in locomotion behavior [13]
Nicotinamide riboside Activation of SIRT3 Antioxidant stress [22, 23, 58]
PolyQ Direct interaction with the outer membrane of the mitochondria ROS accumulation, decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential [11, 12]
Statins Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase in the mevalonate pathway Interference of mitochondrial electron carriers [15]
TDP-43 proteinopathies Inhibition of ATP synthesis abnormal cristae and a loss of cristae, ROS accumulation [27]