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Table 2 Comparison of effect estimates between observational associations and Mendelian randomization (MR) estimates from inverse variance weighted (IVW) method.

From: Incident disease associations with mosaic chromosomal alterations on autosomes, X and Y chromosomes: insights from a phenome-wide association study in the UK Biobank

  Observation MR IVW
Trait Odds ratio [95% confidence interval] P-value Odds ratio [95% confidence interval] P-value
Retinal diseases 0.67 [0.58–0.77] 6.06 × 10–8 0.77 [0.68–0.87] 4.49 × 10–5
Hypertension 0.92 [0.89–0.96] 5.11 × 10–10 0.99 [0.97–1.02] 0.175
  1. Observational associations adjust for age, age2, and 25-level smoking. MR estimates use selected variants previously identified to be associated with mLOY susceptibility (Thompson et al. [46])