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Table 1 Effects of different modes of mechanical loading on BMSC activities

From: The effects of locomotion on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell fate: insight into mechanical regulation and bone formation

Mode Cell type Intensity Frequency Duration Effects on BMSCs References
Fluid shear stress Murine MSCs 1/2/5 (Pa) 0.5/1/2 (Hz) 14 (days) A regime of 2 Pa, 2 Hz, induces the most robust and reliable upregulation in osteogenic gene expression [71]
hBMSCs 0.2/> 2 (Pa) 3/6/12/24 (h) Lower shear stress (0.2 Pa) induced hMSC migration through MAPK pathways, whereas greater shear stress (> 2 Pa) hindered cell migration [72]
hMSCs 0.1/0.7/2.1/4.2 (Pa) 2.8 (Hz) 30 (min) Upregulation of bioactive compounds under different magnitudes of fluid shear stress [73]
Mechanical stretch/tension loading Mouse BMSCs 3%/8%/13%/18% elongation 0.5 (Hz) 8 (h) Most significant upregulation of osteogenic markers were observed in BMSCs under 8% strain [74]
Rat BMSCs 10% amplitude 1 (Hz) 7/14/21 (days) Chondrogenic markers were most significantly upregulated at the 21st day [75]
Mouse BMSCs 10% elongation 0.5 (Hz) 96 (h) Osteogenic markers together with Wnt proteins were upregulated [76]
Compress stress Rabbit BMSCs 0/90/120/150 (kPa) 1 or 6 h/day for 2, 4, or 6 days Chondrogenic markers were most significantly upregulated under 120 kPa with 1 h/day, which were peak at the 4th day [77]
Rat BMSCs 90/120/150/180 (kPa) 1 (h) ANTXR1 together with chondrogenic markers were most signifcantly increased under 120 kPa [78]
Rat BMSCs 90 (kPa) 1 (h) Hydrostatic pressure promoted cell cycle initiation and stress fibre assembly [79]