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Table 1 Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy synergize with therapeutic agents in various malignancies

From: Is targeting autophagy mechanism in cancer a good approach? The possible double-edge sword effect

Types of cancer Model Therapeutic agent Autophagy inhibitor Outcomes/Effects/Phenotypes  
Pharmacologic Genetic
 B cell lymphomas Mice Cyclophosphamide Chloroquine Hydroxychloroquine ATG5 shRNA Complete tumor regression and delayed tumor recurrence [103]
 Brain cancer AM38 and 794 cells Vemurafenib, Vinblastine Chloroquine Improved tumor cell kill [104]
 Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) EC9706 cells 5-FU LY294002 (LY) Improved the sensitivity of cancer cells towards 5-FU [105]
 Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) EC9706 cells Cisplatin 3-methyladenine Enhanced cisplatin-induced cell death and cell cyle arrest [106]
 Colorectal cancer HT29 5FU Chloroquine Reduced proliferation and cell growth, potentiated cell cycle arrest [107]
 Colorectal cancer SW480 and SW620 Oxaliplatin ATG5, ATG7, shRNA Decreased cell viability and promoted chemotherapy efficacy [108]
 Glioma U373-MG cells Temozolomide Bafilomycin A1 Suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis [109]
 Lung cancer A549 cells Paclitaxel Cisplatin 3-methyladenine Enhanced cytotoxic effect of chemotherapy and promoted apoptosis [110]
 Lung cancer A549 cells Cisplatin 3-methyladenine Inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and increased chemosensitivity [111]
 Lung cancer A549 cells, mice Cisplatin Chloroquine Improved efficeincy o f chemotherapy and suppressed tumour growth, reduced percentage of cancer stem cells [101]
 Myeloid leukemias K562 cells Daunorubicin Chloroquine U0126 ATG5, ATG7, Beclin-1 siRNA Promoted chemotherapy efficacy [112]
 Ovarian cancer 3AO and SKOV3 Paclitaxel Chloroquine ATG5 shRNA Decreased self-renewal ability of cancer stem cells [95]
 Pancreatic cancer Mice Gemcitabine Chloroquine ATG5, ATG7, Beclin-1 shRNA Suppress cancer stem cells activity, cancer cell growth and tumour formation [113]
 Pancreatic cancer PANC-1, BxPC-3 5FU, Gemcitabine Chloroquine Potentiated growth-inhibitory effects [114]
 Renal cancer ACHN-5968, UOK257 cells Paclitaxel 3-methyladenine Beclin 1 siRNA Enhanced paclitaxel-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis [115]
Other therapies
 B cell lymphomas Mice ER signalling inhibitor, Tamoxifen Chloroquine Hydroxychloroquine ATG5 shRNA Complete tumor regression and delayed tumor recurrence [103]
 Bladder cancer J82 and T24 cells AR signaling inhibitor, Enzalutamide 3-methyladenine Bafilomycin A1 Chloroquine ATG5 shRNA Triggered apoptosis and inhibited proliferation [116]
 Bladder cancer UMUC3 cells, mice AR signaling inhibitor, Enzalutamide Chloroquine Impaired tumour growth and improved therapeutic sensitivity [116]
 Bladder cancer EJ and T24 cells, mouse Radiation Chloroquine Promotes radiosensitivity and induced apoptosis [117]
 Cervical carcinoma HeLa cells Photodynamic therapy, Photofrin sgATG5 Enhanced apoptosis and protein carbonylation [118]
 Colorectal cancer SW480 cells PI3K-mTOR inhibitor, NVP-BEZ235 3-methyladenine Chloroquine Reduced cell viability and enhanced apoptosis [119]
 Lung Cancer A549, NCI-H1299, SKMES-1 cells EGFR inhibitor, Gefitinib, erlotinib Chloroquine ATG5, ATG7 siRNA Augmented growth inhibition [120]
 Melanoma A2058, C8161, SKMEL2, UACC903, mTOR inhibitor, Temsirolimus Hydroxychloroquine Impaired cancer cell growth and increased cell death [73]
 Oral squamous cell carcinomas KB cells, mice Cytokine, IL24 3-methyladenine Promoted apoptosis, attenuated tumour growth [121]
 Renal cell carcinoma RCC4 cells, mice mTOR inhibitor, Temsirolimus Chloroquine ATG7 shRNA Improved antitumour activity [122]
 Renal cell carcinoma A498 mTOR inhibitor, Temsirolimus Chloroquine Enhanced cycotoxicity and apoptosis [57]
  1. ER estrogen receptor, AR androgen receptor