Dapagliflozin (DAPA) prevents hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis through AMPK-modulated mitochondrial-dependent pathway.
Representative Western blot images (a) and relative densitometric bar graphs (b–e) of mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic markers in H9c2 cells exposed to hypoxia for 1 h and reoxygenation for 4 h (H1R4) were shown. Antiapoptotic effect of DAPA was further confirmed by caspase 3 activity (f). TUNEL assay was used for investigating apoptotic cells in H9c2 cells (g) and primary cardiomyocytes (h). The data were presented as the mean ± SD of three biological replicates at three separate times (* indicating p < 0.05 compared with the control group; # indicting p < 0.05 compared to H1R4 condition without DAPA treatment; & indicating p < 0.05 compared the DAPA-treated cells in H1R4 condition)