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Table 2 Characteristics of studies conducted on the application of EVs for periodontal regeneration

From: Extracellular vesicles in bone and periodontal regeneration: current and potential therapeutic applications

Origin/source Study mode Active EV cargo molecules Key function/targeted genes References
MSCs-EVs In vitro and in vivo (rat periodontal defect model) Improved periodontal ligament function and promoted regeneration/initiation of prosurvival AKT and ERK signaling in PDL cells/enhanced cell viability [178]
ADSCs-EVs In vivo (rat ligature model) Improved periodontal repair and regeneration [179]
Mobilized-DPSCs-CM In vitro Greater proliferation and migratory activity of NIH3T3 cells/higher immunomodulatory effects/decreased apoptosis [180]
PDLSCs-CM In vivo (rat periodontal defect model) SerpinE1, MCP-1, TIMP-1, uPA, VEGF, IGFBP6, IGFBP2, PDGFR-β, and IFN-ɣ Enhanced periodontal regeneration by suppressing the inflammatory response via decrease in TNF-α [93]
MSCs-CM In vitro and in vivo (rat periodontal defect model) IGF-1, VEGF, TGF-β1, HGF Increased wound-healing and angiogenesis/up-regulation of osteogenetic- and angiogenic-related genes expression/induced periodontal tissue regeneration [181]
GMSCs-CM
PDLSCs-CM
In vitro and in vivo (rat periodontal defect model) Promoted periodontal defect regeneration/lower expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β/higher IL-10 expression/higher expression levels of BSP-II and Runx2 [182]