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Table 2 Clinical trials using MSCs to treat liver disease

From: Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for liver disease: full of chances and challenges

Liver diseases Type of clinical trials No. of patient treated No. of control patient Source of MSCs Route Dose Relevant indicators
and patient response
Refs
Decompensated liver cirrhosis No control group 4 0 Autologous, bone marrow Peripheral vein 3 × 107 Slightly improvement of liver function tests and MELD scores in two of four patients Mohamadnejad et al. [113]
Liver cirrhosis No control group 8 0 Autologous, iliac crest Peripheral or the portal vein 3–5 × 107 Improvement of liver function and MELD scores Kharaziha et al. [9]
Liver failure caused by hepatitis B Randomized Controlled trial 53 105 Autologous, bone marrow Hepatic artery None Short-term efficacy was favorable, but long-term outcomes were not markedly improved Peng et al. [14]
Liver failure caused by hepatitis C Randomized controlled trial 20 20 Autologous, bone marrow-derived hepatocyte Intrahepatic, intrasplenic 2 × 107 hepatic lineage committed cells Significant improvement in Child score, MELD, fatigue scale, and performance status Amer et al. [17]
Primary biliary cirrhosis Non-control 7 0 Allogenic, umbilical cord Peripheral vein 0.5 × 106 cells/kg body Decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase and g-glutamyltransferase levels Wang et al. [12]
Acute-on-chronic liver failure Parallel-controlled trial 24 19 Allogenic, umbilical cord Cubital vein of the arm 0.5 × 106 cells/kg body Improvement of the survival rates, MELD and liver function Shi et al. [15]
Decompensated liver cirrhosis Paired, controlled study 30 15 Allogenic, umbilical cord Intravenously 0.5 × 106 cells/kg body Improvement of liver function and reduction in the volume of ascites Zhang et al. [4]
Liver cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C Randomized controlled trial 15 10 Autologous, bone marrow Intravenously 1 × 106 cells/kg body Improvement of liver function, and decline of elevated bilirubin and MELD score Ansary et al. [5]
Decompensated liver cirrhosis Randomized controlled trial 15 12 Autologous, bone marrow Peripheral vein 2 × 108 No improvement of Child scores, MELD scores, and liver function Mohamadnejad et al. [8]
Liver cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C No control group 20 0 Autologous, bone marrow Intrasplenic 1 × 107 Improvement of liver function Sabry et al. [46]
Alcoholic cirrhosis No control group 11 0 Autologous, bone marrow Hepatic artery 5 × 107 Improvement of Child–Pugh score,and decrease of TGFb1,a-SMA Jang et al. [114]
End-stage liver disease related with HCV Randomized controlled trial 20 20 Autologous, bone marrow Peripheral vein None 54% showed near normalization of liver enzymes and improvement in liver synthetic function Salama et al. [18]
Liver cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B Randomized controlled trial 20 19 Autologous, bone marrow Hepatic artery None Improvement of liver function and an increased Treg/ Th17 ratio Xu et al. [6]
Liver cirrhosis No control group 12 0 Autologous, bone marrow Peripheral vein 1 × 106/kg Partly improvement of MELD, no change in liver regeneration and fibrosis after 6 months Kantarcıoğlu et al. [115]
Alcoholic cirrhosis Randomized controlled trial 37 18 Autologous, bone marrow Hepatic arterial 5 × 107, one-time or two-time Improvement of liver function and Child–Pugh scores Suk et al. [10]
Acute Liver Allograft Rejection Randomized controlled trial 14 13 Allogenic, umbilical cord Intravenously 1 × 106/kg body Improvement of liver function and allograft histology, increased Treg/ Th17 ratio, CD4 T-cell activation; elevated Levels of TGF-b1 and PGE2 Shi et al. [19]
Acute-on-chronic liver failure Randomized controlled trial 56 54 Allogenic, bone marrow Intravenously 1.0 to 10 × 105 cells/kg Improvement of survival rate, liver function, reduction of infection Lin et al. [16]
Liver cirrhosis caused by autoimmune disease No control group 26 0 Allogenic, umbilical cord, umbilical cord blood, bone marrow Intravenously 1 × 106/kg Improvement of liver function and MELD scores Liang et al. [11]
Liver transplantation Non-randomized, controlled trial 10 10 Allogenic, bone marrow Intravenously 1.5–3 × 106 /kg Not sufficient to allow withdrawal of immunosuppression Detry et al. [20]
Liver cirrhosis No control group 4 0 Autologous, adipose Hepatic artery 6.6 × 105 cells/kg Improvement of liver function, and HGF, IL-6 increased Sakai et al. [116]
Ischemic-type biliary lesions following liver transplantation Randomized controlled trial 12 70 Allogenic, umbilical cord Peripheral intravenous infusion 1 × 106/kg, 6-time Improvement of survival rate and liver function Zhang et al. [117]
Liver cirrhosis Randomized controlled trial 50 53 Allogenic, umbilical cord Intravenously (4.0–4.5) × 108 Improvement of Child scores, MELD scores, and liver function Fang et al. [7]