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Table 3 All studies used transcription factors to reprogram human fibroblasts into NSCs and NPCs

From: How to reprogram human fibroblasts to neurons

Target cell type Reprogramming factors Reprogramming mechanism Effects on neural cells induction References
NSCs SOX2 Unknown Inhibit differentiation of NSCs and maintain its proliferation Ring et al. 2012 [34]
NPCs ZIC3, OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 Unknown Play important roles in the maintenance of ESCs and neuroprogenitor cells pluripotency Kumar et al. 2012 [106]
NSCs OCT4 SOX2 activation Induce the transformation from fibroblasts to proliferating NSCs Mitchell et al. 2014 [63]
BRN2 activation  
MYT1L activation
NEUROD1 activation
NPCs SOX2 Unknown Play an essential role in the maintenance of both ES cells and NSCs and prevents cell differentiation Zou et al. 2014 [83]
C-MYC A pivotal target of Wnt-β-catenin signaling Improve proliferation and promote reprogramming, regulate the neuronal differentiation of NPCs and the expansion of basal progenitors
BRN2 Other proneural genes (e.g. Tbr2) activation, diminish the Notch-directed transcription of HES5 Promote neurogenesis
BRN4 Unknown Elevate neuronal differentiation and maturation from NSCs
NSCs let-7 microRNA HMGA2 activation Increase SOX2 reprogramming efficiency Yu et al. 2015 [57]
SOX2 HMGA2 activation Unknown
NSCs Zfp521 Unknown Maintain the NSC identity of the medulla oblongata Shahbazi et al. 2016 [65]
NSCs OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, L-MYC, LIN28 Unknown Unknown Capetian et al. 2016 [107]
A small hairpin directed against p53 Unknown Enhance the reprogramming process
NSCs SOX2 Unknown Unknown Sung et al. 2017 [64]
HMGA2 Unknown Increase reprogramming efficiency
NSCs PTF1A Bind with RBPJ to form trimer DNA complex Activate the reprogramming process, make NSCs maintain self-renewal ability and NSC identity and prevent excessive neuronal differentiation of NSCs Xiao et al. 2018 [16]
Kangxin et al. 2020 [67]
NPCs CBX2, HES1, ID1, TFAP2A, ZFP42, ZNF423 Unknown Increase proliferation of NSCs decrease apoptosis, keep rostral identity Hou et al. 2017 [108]
FOXG1, GATA3, NR2A2, PAX6, SALL2, TFAP2A, ZFP42   Conducive to neuron lineage differentiation and keep caudal identity