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Table 1 ATG proteins in Dugesia japonica and Hydra vulgaris

From: Autophagy and its role in regeneration and remodeling within invertebrate

Protein complexes Proteins Gene accession Locus name AA PI Mw (kD) GRAVY Identity (%) Functions and characteristics References
Hs Mm Dm Ce Sc
ATG1 complex             Initiation of autophagy
  ATG1 AWD06772.1 DjATG1 814 7.23 92.0 −0.451 26 26.4 26.4 27.4 18.2 Serine/threonine kinase [24, 51,52,53]
  ATG13 AWD06777.1 DjATG13 401 5.38 45.1 −0.504 21.6 21.3 18.1 18.1 11.9 Phosphoprotein [25, 26, 29, 54, 55]
CDG71824.1 HvATG13 432 5.23 49.1 −0.270 23.5 23 24.5 16.7 13.6  
  ATG101 CDG67707.1 HvATG101 230 6.44 27.1 −0.505 48.2 48.2 43.6 Link the ATG1/13 complex to autophagic membranes [31, 32]
PI3K complex             Autophagosome formation
  ATG6 CDG70076.1 HvBECN1 451 5.07 52.2 −0.672 60 60.4 53.7 28 26.8 Allosteric modulator of PI3KC [56,57,58]
AVX32557.1 DjATG6 423 4.94 49.0 −0.480 33.7 33.5 33.8 25.4 16.9  
  ATG14 CDG69295.1 HvATG14 467 7.05 53.6 −0.487 25.7 26.2 22.6 10 12.6 Regulates autophagosome targeting [36, 37, 59,60,61,62]
Ubiquitin-like conjugation (ATG12)            Conjugation of ATG12 and ATG5
  ATG5 CDG67424.1 HvATG5 285 7.78 33.8 −0.428 56.3 55.9 45.1 33.6 21.4 Target for ATG12 conjugation [63,64,65,66]
AWD06774.1 DjATG5 284 5.81 33.2 −0.263 41 40.7 41.5 32.4 21.3
  ATG7 CDG71639.1 HvATG7 693 5.39 78.2 −0.126 52.5 53.7 42.8 41.5 E1 conjugation enzymes for ATG12 conjugation [43, 67,68,69]
APY27057.2 DjATG7 693 6.39 79.1 −0.267 39.7 40.4 39.1 36.8
  ATG10 CDG67441.1 HvATG10 192 5.65 22.5 −0.193 35.4 34.4 30.1 26.5 18.8 E2 conjugation enzymes for ATG12 conjugation [70, 71]
AWD06776.1 DjATG10 165 6.42 19.5 −0.284 23.8 23.8 23.4 19.6 16
  ATG12 CDG71705.1 HvATG12 129 5.44 14.7 −0.508 48.8 47.3 50 31 18.3 Ubiquitin−like modifier, ATG5 and ATG10 interaction [44, 63,64,65,66, 70]
AVL25105.1 DjATG12 106 5.59 11.9 −0.187 45.7 46.7 39.4 37.7 28.4
  ATG16 CDG69520.1 HvATG16L1 491 6.95 55.5 −0.458 32.6–43.6 32–43.6 42 29.7–30.8 10.6 Required for the localization of ATG5–ATG12 to membranes [47, 72, 73]
AWD06778.1 DjATG16 529 8.1 60.2 −0.500 28.1–34.2 27.5–34.2 33 24.9–27 9.7
Ubiquitin-like conjugation (ATG8)            Conjugation of ATG8 to PE
  ATG3 CDG67081.1 HvATG3 308 4.79 35.2 −0.614 60.5 67 61 52.2 36.7 E2 conjugation enzymes for ATG8 conjugation [64, 74,75,76,77,78,79,80]
ASL04728.1 DjATG3 322 4.75 36.8 −0.457 51.1 56.9 55.8 48 33  
  ATG4 CDG66347.1 HvATG4B 560 6.44 64.2 −0.209 26.5–47.6 25.8–46.8 28.2–39 25.8–36.4 21 Cysteine protease [81,82,83,84,85,86,87,88]
CDG68148.1 HvATG4C 442 7.13 51.0 −0.418 29.4–39.7 27.9–39.7 29.8–37.7 26.9–27.8 23.8
AQK38494.1 DjATG4 412 5.84 47.1 −0.251 29.3–42.7 29.7–43.3 30.2–38 26.8–34 25.9
  ATG7 CDG71639.1 HvATG7 693 5.39 78.2 −0.126 52.5 53.7 42.8 41.5 E1 conjugation enzymes for ATG8 conjugation [64, 69, 70, 89,90,91]
APY27057.2 DjATG7 693 6.39 79.1 −0.267 39.7 40.4 39.1 36.8
  ATG8 CDG71662.1 HvGABARAP 118 7.92 14.1 −0.607 30.2–94.9 30.2–94.9 75.4–89 33.6–82.2 54.7 Ubiquitin-like modifier, recruitment and scaffolding of proteins, cargo recognition [38, 39, 41, 92,93,94,95,96,97]
CDG70632.1 HvGABARAPL2 118 8.66 13.7 −0.340 39.3–71.8 37.6–71.8 55.9–63.6 37.9–62.7 62.4
XP_012555909.1 HvLC3A 129 9.18 15.2 −0.410 40.3–52.9 41.9–52.9 39.7–39.8 39.7–42.7 37.6
CDG67574.1 HvLC3C 125 9.45 14.5 −0.510 37.6–70.4 37.6–62.8 38.5–40.2 41.9 39.3
APU52177.1 DjATG8-1 117 7.89 14 −0.644 32.5–86.3 32.5–86.3 76.9–85.5 33.6–82.1 53.8
APU52176.1 DjATG8-2 119 9.16 13.9 −0.360 35.3–66.7 36–66.7 50.0–50.4 38.8–51.3 47.9
APU52178.1 DjATG8-3 118 6.74 13.8 −0.511 34.8–59.8 33.9–59.8 55.1–61.0 31.9–56.8 77.8
ATG9 complex             Membrane recruitment to autophagosomes
  ATG2 CDG68195.1 HvATG2 1296 5.13 145.5 −0.294 34.7–36.7 34.9–35.2 27.4 20.5 14.6 Transfer lipids and bridges the forming autophagosome to ER [98,99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106]
AWD06773.1 DjATG2 1790 5.41 205.9 −0.367 16.8–18 16.7–18 17.4 15.5 12
  ATG9 CDG69175.1 HvATG9 790 8.67 91.9 −0.082 32.1–41.5 33–41.4 33.1 27.3 21.8 Integral membrane protein [102, 107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114]
AWD06775.1 DjATG9 741 8.42 85.5 0.044 23.6–26.2 23.4–26.1 26.2 23.1 19.3  
  ATG18 AWL25033.1 DjATG18 446 6.79 50.1 −0.162 24.9–33.7 24.3–34.5 30.9–31.6 33.5 29.8 Function for ATG2 localization [99, 101, 115]
  1. AA, amino acids; Hs, Homo sapiens; Mm, Mus musculus; Dm, Drosophila melanogaster; Ce, Caenorhabditis elegans; Sc, Saccharomyces cerevisiae