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Table 1 ATG proteins in Dugesia japonica and Hydra vulgaris

From: Autophagy and its role in regeneration and remodeling within invertebrate

Protein complexes

Proteins

Gene accession

Locus name

AA

PI

Mw (kD)

GRAVY

Identity (%)

Functions and characteristics

References

Hs

Mm

Dm

Ce

Sc

ATG1 complex

           

Initiation of autophagy

 

ATG1

AWD06772.1

DjATG1

814

7.23

92.0

−0.451

26

26.4

26.4

27.4

18.2

Serine/threonine kinase

[24, 51,52,53]

 

ATG13

AWD06777.1

DjATG13

401

5.38

45.1

−0.504

21.6

21.3

18.1

18.1

11.9

Phosphoprotein

[25, 26, 29, 54, 55]

CDG71824.1

HvATG13

432

5.23

49.1

−0.270

23.5

23

24.5

16.7

13.6

 
 

ATG101

CDG67707.1

HvATG101

230

6.44

27.1

−0.505

48.2

48.2

43.6

Link the ATG1/13 complex to autophagic membranes

[31, 32]

PI3K complex

           

Autophagosome formation

 

ATG6

CDG70076.1

HvBECN1

451

5.07

52.2

−0.672

60

60.4

53.7

28

26.8

Allosteric modulator of PI3KC

[56,57,58]

AVX32557.1

DjATG6

423

4.94

49.0

−0.480

33.7

33.5

33.8

25.4

16.9

 
 

ATG14

CDG69295.1

HvATG14

467

7.05

53.6

−0.487

25.7

26.2

22.6

10

12.6

Regulates autophagosome targeting

[36, 37, 59,60,61,62]

Ubiquitin-like conjugation (ATG12)

          

Conjugation of ATG12 and ATG5

 

ATG5

CDG67424.1

HvATG5

285

7.78

33.8

−0.428

56.3

55.9

45.1

33.6

21.4

Target for ATG12 conjugation

[63,64,65,66]

AWD06774.1

DjATG5

284

5.81

33.2

−0.263

41

40.7

41.5

32.4

21.3

 

ATG7

CDG71639.1

HvATG7

693

5.39

78.2

−0.126

52.5

53.7

42.8

41.5

E1 conjugation enzymes for ATG12 conjugation

[43, 67,68,69]

APY27057.2

DjATG7

693

6.39

79.1

−0.267

39.7

40.4

39.1

36.8

 

ATG10

CDG67441.1

HvATG10

192

5.65

22.5

−0.193

35.4

34.4

30.1

26.5

18.8

E2 conjugation enzymes for ATG12 conjugation

[70, 71]

AWD06776.1

DjATG10

165

6.42

19.5

−0.284

23.8

23.8

23.4

19.6

16

 

ATG12

CDG71705.1

HvATG12

129

5.44

14.7

−0.508

48.8

47.3

50

31

18.3

Ubiquitin−like modifier, ATG5 and ATG10 interaction

[44, 63,64,65,66, 70]

AVL25105.1

DjATG12

106

5.59

11.9

−0.187

45.7

46.7

39.4

37.7

28.4

 

ATG16

CDG69520.1

HvATG16L1

491

6.95

55.5

−0.458

32.6–43.6

32–43.6

42

29.7–30.8

10.6

Required for the localization of ATG5–ATG12 to membranes

[47, 72, 73]

AWD06778.1

DjATG16

529

8.1

60.2

−0.500

28.1–34.2

27.5–34.2

33

24.9–27

9.7

Ubiquitin-like conjugation (ATG8)

          

Conjugation of ATG8 to PE

 

ATG3

CDG67081.1

HvATG3

308

4.79

35.2

−0.614

60.5

67

61

52.2

36.7

E2 conjugation enzymes for ATG8 conjugation

[64, 74,75,76,77,78,79,80]

ASL04728.1

DjATG3

322

4.75

36.8

−0.457

51.1

56.9

55.8

48

33

 
 

ATG4

CDG66347.1

HvATG4B

560

6.44

64.2

−0.209

26.5–47.6

25.8–46.8

28.2–39

25.8–36.4

21

Cysteine protease

[81,82,83,84,85,86,87,88]

CDG68148.1

HvATG4C

442

7.13

51.0

−0.418

29.4–39.7

27.9–39.7

29.8–37.7

26.9–27.8

23.8

AQK38494.1

DjATG4

412

5.84

47.1

−0.251

29.3–42.7

29.7–43.3

30.2–38

26.8–34

25.9

 

ATG7

CDG71639.1

HvATG7

693

5.39

78.2

−0.126

52.5

53.7

42.8

41.5

E1 conjugation enzymes for ATG8 conjugation

[64, 69, 70, 89,90,91]

APY27057.2

DjATG7

693

6.39

79.1

−0.267

39.7

40.4

39.1

36.8

 

ATG8

CDG71662.1

HvGABARAP

118

7.92

14.1

−0.607

30.2–94.9

30.2–94.9

75.4–89

33.6–82.2

54.7

Ubiquitin-like modifier, recruitment and scaffolding of proteins, cargo recognition

[38, 39, 41, 92,93,94,95,96,97]

CDG70632.1

HvGABARAPL2

118

8.66

13.7

−0.340

39.3–71.8

37.6–71.8

55.9–63.6

37.9–62.7

62.4

XP_012555909.1

HvLC3A

129

9.18

15.2

−0.410

40.3–52.9

41.9–52.9

39.7–39.8

39.7–42.7

37.6

CDG67574.1

HvLC3C

125

9.45

14.5

−0.510

37.6–70.4

37.6–62.8

38.5–40.2

41.9

39.3

APU52177.1

DjATG8-1

117

7.89

14

−0.644

32.5–86.3

32.5–86.3

76.9–85.5

33.6–82.1

53.8

APU52176.1

DjATG8-2

119

9.16

13.9

−0.360

35.3–66.7

36–66.7

50.0–50.4

38.8–51.3

47.9

APU52178.1

DjATG8-3

118

6.74

13.8

−0.511

34.8–59.8

33.9–59.8

55.1–61.0

31.9–56.8

77.8

ATG9 complex

           

Membrane recruitment to autophagosomes

 

ATG2

CDG68195.1

HvATG2

1296

5.13

145.5

−0.294

34.7–36.7

34.9–35.2

27.4

20.5

14.6

Transfer lipids and bridges the forming autophagosome to ER

[98,99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106]

AWD06773.1

DjATG2

1790

5.41

205.9

−0.367

16.8–18

16.7–18

17.4

15.5

12

 

ATG9

CDG69175.1

HvATG9

790

8.67

91.9

−0.082

32.1–41.5

33–41.4

33.1

27.3

21.8

Integral membrane protein

[102, 107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114]

AWD06775.1

DjATG9

741

8.42

85.5

0.044

23.6–26.2

23.4–26.1

26.2

23.1

19.3

 
 

ATG18

AWL25033.1

DjATG18

446

6.79

50.1

−0.162

24.9–33.7

24.3–34.5

30.9–31.6

33.5

29.8

Function for ATG2 localization

[99, 101, 115]

  1. AA, amino acids; Hs, Homo sapiens; Mm, Mus musculus; Dm, Drosophila melanogaster; Ce, Caenorhabditis elegans; Sc, Saccharomyces cerevisiae