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Table 3 Selected preclinical studies of MSCs-derived secretome for PFDs

From: MSC-based therapy in female pelvic floor disorders

Author/year Animal/models MSC sources Method of injection Characterization of exosomes Functional assessments Main outcomes Conclusions
Dissaranan et al. 2014 [64] Rats/VD Rat BM-MSCs Periurethral or intravenous Using CCM not exosomes LPP test; external urethral sphincter electromyography LPP, elastin fibers and urethral smooth muscle increased in rats treated with MSCs or CCM MSCs homed to the urethra and vagina and facilitated recovery of continence most likely via secretion of paracrine factors
Liu et al. 2018 [65] In vitro experiments, vaginal fibroblasts from women with SUI Human ADSCs / / / The expression of type I collagen, TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 increased, whereas the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-2 decreased Exosomes increased type I collagen contents by increasing collagen synthesis and decreasing collagen degradation
Ni et al. 2018 [89] Rats/PNT and VD Human ADSCs Periurethral Dynamic light scattering; scanning electron microscopy; identification of surface markers; proteomic analysis Cystometrography; LPP test Exosomes enhanced the proliferation of muscular and Schwann cell in vitro; the bladder capacity, LPP, striated muscle fibers, and nerve fibers increased both in ADSCs-treated and exosomes-treated rats Local injection of ADSCs-derived exosomes improved functional and histological recovery after SUI
Wu et al. 2019 [90] Rats/VD Human USCs Local injection around the pubococcygeus muscle Identification of surface markers; assessments of size distribution and concentration Maximum bladder volume; abdominal LPP test Exosomes improved the urodynamic parameters; promoted the pubococcygeus muscle recovery, satellite cells activation, proliferation and differentiation; promoted ERK phosphorylation USCs-derived exosomes played roles in myogenic satellite cells differentiation into myoblasts and in SUI cell-free treatment
  1. VD vaginal dilation, SUI stress urinary incontinence, ADSCs adipose-derived stem cells, BM-MSCs bone marrow-derived MSCs, PNT pudendal nerve transection, USCs urinary-derived stem cells, CCM concentrated conditioned media, LPP leak-point pressure, TIMP tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases MMP matrix metalloproteinase