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Table 2 Selected preclinical studies of MSCs-based tissue engineering for PFDs

From: MSC-based therapy in female pelvic floor disorders

Author/year Animal/models MSC sources Materials Implantation of the constructs Tracking of MSCs Main assessments Main outcomes Conclusions
Darzi et al. 2018 [86] Mice/abdominal subcutaneous wound Human eMSCs Polyamide/gelatin composite mesh Implanted into two pockets and sutured to the abdominal fascial layer Transduced with a mCherry lentivirus Immunofluorescence; ELISA; qPCR Higher expression of M2 markers and reduced cytokines in eMSC/mesh; immunomodulatory effects were delayed and weaker in immunocompromised mice The immune status affected the survival of xenogeneic eMSC which leads to differences in the short-term and long-term macrophage responses to implanted meshes
Ulrich et al. 2014 [78] Rats/dorsal subcutaneous wound Human eMSCs Polyamide/gelatin mesh Implanted into a subcutaneous pocket; two meshes inserted for each rat Labeled with DiO Histological analysis; immunofluorescence; uniaxial tensiometry MSCs detected on the mesh up to 14 days; Meshes with MSCs promoted neovascularization and reduced leukocyte infiltration Seeding with eMSC exerted an anti-inflammatory effect and promoted wound repair, and produced mesh with greater extensibility
Ding et al. 2018 [49] Rats/posterior vaginal wall incision Human UC-MSCs PP mesh Implanted into vaginal wall next to the rectovaginal fascia Marked with GFP or RFP Macroscopic evaluation; fluorescence microscopy; histological analysis No difference in fibrotic remodeling and inflammatory cells number; a better vascularization in cell-seeded mesh and a thicker layer covered the cell-seeded scaffold UC-MSCs with differentiated smooth muscle cells might have a potential role in fascia tissue engineering to repair POP in the future
Edwards et al. 2015 [85] Rats/dorsal subcutaneous wound Human eMSCs Polyamide/gelatin mesh Implanted into a subcutaneous pocket and secured to the muscle layer / Uniaxial biomechanical analysis; scanning electron microscopy Cell-seeded scaffolds were significantly less stiff than non-cell-seeded scaffolds; Collagen growth and organization were enhanced in the long-term in cell-seeded scaffolds Results suggest that neo-tissue formation and remodelling may be enhanced through seeding scaffolds with eMSCs
Paul et al. 2019 [46] Rats/abdominal subcutaneous wound Human eMSCs 3D printed PCL mesh Implanted into a subcutaneous pocket with cell side facing abdominal wall Transduced with a mCherry lentivirus Scanning electron microscope; Atomic Force Microscopy; Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy; histological analysis eMSC printed on MES constructs promoted tissue integration, eMSC retention and an anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotyp eMSC bioprinting onto an MES mesh to produce a CAD-specific potentially surgical grade tissue engineered construct for possible urogynecological applications such as POP
  1. eMSCs endometrial MSCs, UC-MSCs umbilical cord-derived MSCs, PP polypropylene, PCL poly caprolactone, RFP red fluorescent protein, ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, qPCR quantitative polymerase chain reaction