Skip to main content

Table 1 Selected preclinical studies of MSCs transplantation for PFDs

From: MSC-based therapy in female pelvic floor disorders

Author/year Animal/models MSC sources Method of injection/number of cells Tracking of MSCs Functional assessments Main outcomes Conclusions
Lin et al. 2010 [38] Rats/VD Human ADSCs Urethral or intravenous/1 × 106 Labeled with BrdU and EdU Conscious cystometry Urinary voiding function improved, elastin and smooth muscle content increased and MSCs survival for at least 4 weeks. Transplantation of ADSCs via urethral or intravenous injection was effective in the treatment and/or prevention of SUI in a preclinical setting
Cruz et al. 2012 [57] Rats/VD Rat BM-MSCs Intravenous/2 × 106 Labelled with GFP / GFP + MSCs in the pelvic region both 4 and 10 days after VD; the total flux decreased from 4 to 10 days after VD and sham VD Intravenous administration of MSCs could provide an effective route for cell-based therapy
Sadeghi et al. 2015 [80] Rats/VD Human BM-MSCs Periurethral or intravenous/1 × 106 In situ hybridization; bioluminescence imaging LPP test LPP, connective tissue content and vascular density increased in periurethral or intravenous groups; no labeled cells were observed in urethras at 4, 10, and 14 days Human MSCs restored urinary continence with an immediate and sustained effect in the VD model; MSCs remained at the site of periurethral injection for < 7 days
Menachem- Zidon et al. 2019 [58] Rats/posterior midline vaginal incision Rat BM-MSCs Intravenous or vaginal subepithelial/2 × 106 Labeled with PKH-26 or GFP / The epithelial layer healed; systemically transplanted MSCs differentiate into endothelial cells; systemically transplanted MSCs form blood vessel structures These findings pave the way to further studies of the potential role of MSCs transplantation in improving surgical outcome in women with PFD
Salcedo et al. 2013 [81] Rats/SP or PNC Rat BM-MSCs Intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) into the anal sphincter/2 × 106 Labelled with GFP Anal pressure test; anal sphincter EMG Anal sphincter pressure increased in IV and IM groups after SP, but not after PNC; sphincter EMG amplitude also increased in both groups, but frequency only increased in IV group MSC treatment resulted in significant improvement in anal pressures after SP, suggesting that MSCs could be utilized to facilitate recovery after anal sphincter injury
Salcedo et al. 2014 [82] Rats/SP Rat BM-MSCs IM/5 × 105 or serial IV/5 × 105 daily for 6 consecutive days Labelled with GFP Anal pressure test Both IM and IV MSC treatment after injury caused an increase in anal pressure sustained at 5 weeks MSCs delivered intravenously and intramuscularly resulted in functional recovery
Kuismanen et al. 2018 [83] Rats/SP Human ADSCs Intramuscular into the external sphincter/3 × 105 Labelled with PMP-50 ARM ARM pressure was significantly higher in ADSCs treatment groups; No difference in the sphincter muscle continuation between the groups The ADSCs injection with both saline and Bulkamid is a promising nonsurgical treatment for acute anal sphincter injury
Gautam et al. 2014 [102] Rabbits/cryoinjured urethral model Autologous ADSCs Urethral/2 × 106 Labeled with PKH26 LPP test LPP of the cell-implanted group was higher compared with control group; implanted PKH26-labeled ADSCs were immunohistochemically positive for myoglobin, SMA, and Pax7 antibodies Implantation of ADSCs into cryoinjured rabbit urethras promoted the recovery of urethral function
  1. VD vaginal dilation, SP sphincterotomy, LLP leak-point pressure, PNC pudendal nerve crush, ADSCs adipose-derived stem cells, BM-MSCs bone marrow-derived MSCs, BrdU 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine, EdU 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine, GFP green fluorescent protein, PMP-50 magnetizable nanoparticles, EMG electromyography, ARM anorectal manometry, SAM smooth muscle actin, Pax7 a satellite cell marker