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Table 1 Functions of autophagy-related proteins in parasitic infection

From: Autophagy in the control and pathogenesis of parasitic infections

ATG Proteins Function References
Atg1 (ULK1) complex (FIP200/Atg101) Activates the PI3K class III complex [41,42,43]
Atg3 E2-conjugating enzyme; autocatalyzes itself to form ATG12-ATG3 complex for maintaining
mitochondrial homeostasis
[8, 41]
Atg4 Recycling improperly conjugated Atg8 [41, 44]
Atg7 E1-activating enzyme and protein transport [41, 45]
Atg8 (LC3) Membrane elongation and autophagosome closure require covalent attachment of the C-terminal glycine to PE in the phagophore membrane [41, 46]
Atg9 Golgi-derived membranes supply during initiation to the PAS [47, 48]
Atg10 E2-like enzyme in ATG12 conjugation with Atg5 [8, 49]
Atg16 Autophagic vacuole formation; Protein transport and degradation [45, 50, 51]
PI3K class III complex (Vps34, Atg14, Vps15/p150, and Atg6/Beclin1) Converts PI into PI(3)P at the site of the PAS [41, 52]
Atg12-Atg5- Atg16 Increase conjugation of Atg5 (Atg 8 in yeast) and autophagosome formation [52,53,54]
Atg2-WIPI complex (Atg2-Atg18 in yeast) Recruitment to the PAS and WD40 repeats for beta propeller formation. Atg18 also prevent Atg4 cleavage [8, 55]
  1. PAS pre-autophagosomal Structure, PE phosphatidylethanolamine, PI3K Phosphatidyl-Inositol 3-phosphate Kinase, PI phosphatidylinositol, PI(3)P phosphatidylinositol triphosphate