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Table 1 Summary of voltage-gated sodium channel distribution and the related channelopathy

From: Pathophysiological roles and therapeutic potential of voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) in pain associated with herpesvirus infection

Channel Main distribution Inflammatory pain Neuropathic pain Herpes virus-induced pain Other related diseases
Nav1.1 Large diameter DRG, myelinated A-fibers, inhibitory neurons N/A Increase [42, 52, 75] N/A Epilepsies, hemiplegic migraine and autistic spectrum
Nav1.2 CNS (dendrites and axons), excitatory neurons N/A Increase [75] N/A Epilepsies, intellectual disability and autism
Nav1.3 Fetal and neonatal DRG neurons, C-fibers Increase [62, 66,67,68] Increase [52, 66, 69,70,71,72,73,74]
No change [13, 75, 76]
No change (lytic and latent) [13, 122] N/A
Nav1.4 Skeletal muscle N/A N/A N/A Muscle paralysis episodes, myotonia episodes, infants apnoea, hypoxia, cyanosis or SIDS
Nav1.5 Cardiac tissue N/A N/A N/A Cardiac arrhythmias
Nav1.6 Large diameter DRG, myelinated A-fibers (Node of Ranvier) Increase [90, 91]
No change [86, 88]
Increase [75, 90, 91] Increase (latent) [122] EIEE, epilepsy
Nav1.7 Small diameter DRG Increase [62, 102,103,104,105] Increase [52, 66, 74, 107, 108]
Decrease [37, 73]
Increase (latent) [13, 122] Itch, IEM and PEPD (severe burning pain in rectum, eye and mandible)
Nav1.8 Small diameter sensory neurons Increase [62, 66,67,68, 111, 112, 115] Increase [52, 66, 74, 113,114,115]
Decrease [37, 73, 106]
No change (Latent) [122] MS and cardiac arrhythmias
Nav1.9 Small diameter DRG Increase [52, 66, 68, 74, 118,119,120,121]
Decrease [37]
No change [62, 67]
No change [118,119,120] N/A Itch
  1. A report showed that HSV-1 infection caused a significant reduction in the expression of VGSC [10, 17], but it did not indicate the regulatory effect of specific subtypes
  2. N/A not applicable