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Table 2 The therapeutic effects for different MSC-EV type

From: Extracellular vesicles derived from different sources of mesenchymal stem cells: therapeutic effects and translational potential

Origins Type of vesicles Diseases Administration route Biological function References
hBM-MSCs EVs Osteoarthritis / Promoting extracorporeal cartilage regeneration [26]
hBM-MSCs EVs Tendon injury Topical administration Promoting tendon healing [30]
hBM-MSCs EVs Kidney injury Intravenous injection Repairing kidney damage [31, 32]
hBM-MSCs EVs Graft-versus-host disease Systemic infusion Suppressing inflammation [35]
hBM-MSCs Exosomes Liver fibrosis Intraperitoneal injection Reducing hepatic fibrosis [41]
hBM-MSCs Exosomes Autism spectrum disorder Nasal administration Improving autistic behavior [42]
mBM-MSCs EVs Hepatic failure Intravenous injection Tissue regeneration [37]
mBM-MSCs EVs Alzheimer’s Disease Intracerebral Injection Reducing a beta plaque [38]
mBM-MSCs Exosomes Heart attacks Intramyocardial injection Inducing macrophage polarization [45]
mBM-MSCs Exosomes Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis Intraperitoneal injection Regulating microglia polarization [46]
huc-MSCs EVs Hepatic ischemia–reperfusion injury Intraperitoneal injection Protecting the liver cell apoptosis [58]
huc-MSCs EVs Peripheral nerve injury Intravenous injection Promoting nerve regeneration [59]
huc-MSCs EVs Senile osteoporosis Intravenous injection Ameliorating bone loss [60]
huc-MSCs EVs Intrauterine adhesions Intravenous injection Ameliorating induced intrauterine adhesions [61]
WJMSCs EVs microvesicles kidney injury Intravenous injection Suppressing oxidation alleviating the apoptosis of renal cells [63]
[64]
WJMSC EVs Perinatal brain injury Intraperitoneal injection Suppressing inflammation [67]
huc-MSCs Exosomes Liver injury / Promoting angiogenesis and reducing apoptosis [72,73,74]
huC-MSC Exosomes Perinatal diseases and neonates Intranasal administration Protecting neuron cell [76]
huC-MSC Exosomes Preterm newborn infants / Increasing capability to cope with anoxic environment [77]
huC-MSC Exosomes Primary ovarian insufficiency (poi) / Preventing and treating chemotherapy-induced ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis [78]
hAD-MSCs EVs Osteoarthritis experimental allergic asthma / Regulating inflammation [84, 85, 87]
mAD-MSCs EVs Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis Intravenous injection Reducing neuroinflammation [88]
AD-MSCs Exosomes Atopic dermatitis Intravenous injection or subcutaneously injection Regulating inflammation and modulating the polarization of macrophage [91]
AD-MSCs Exosomes Wound healing Systemic administration Reducing scar formation [93, 94]
ES-MSCs EVs Liver fibrosis Intraperitoneal injection Ameliorating rat liver fibrosis [103]
ES-MSCs Exosomes Osteoarthritis Intra-articular injections Promoting chondrocyte proliferation [107, 108]