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Table 1 Histone chaperones in breast cancer metastasis

From: A three layered histone epigenetics in breast cancer metastasis

S. no Histone chaperone Role in breast cancer metastasis References
1. APLF APLF over-expression is associated with breast cancer metastasis
Regulate MacroH2A.1 recruitment in EMT specific promoter, EZH2/H3K27me3 level at FOXA1 promoter and recruitment of FOXA1 at CDH1 promoter
2. HJURP Higher expression in breast cancer metastasis condition
Target of ATM signaling pathway, where it interacts with hMSH5 and NBS1
[43, 44, 46, 47]
3. DAXX Down-regulated in breast cancer metastasis
Forms complex with ATRX in order to maintain H3K9me3 methylation
Negative regulator of c-met
DAXX knockout cells have lower H4 acetylation and higher HDAC2 activity
Binds at the promoter region of RAD51
[50, 52, 53]
4. DEK Act as proto-oncogene
Higher expression in breast cancer metastasis condition
DEK knock down cells has lesser H3K9me3 mark, lower CDH1 expression. Induces metastasis via β-Catenin pathway
Downstream target of RON
Also found to mediate EMT via PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway
Causes angiogenesis via VEGF pathway
[55, 58, 60, 61, 63]
5. ANP32E Positive correlation with breast cancer metastasis
Helps in the removal of H2AZ variants so that FACT can deposit ɣH2AX in response to DDR
Influences E2F1 transcription factor
Regulation by mi-RNA-141
Part of “Landmaine’s six gene signature” for predicting lung metastasis of breast cancer
[69, 71, 73]
6. ASF1 ASF1B over-expressed in breast cancer metastasis [75]
7. FACT Upregulated in breast cancer metastasis patient samples [79]
8. NPM1 Higher NPM1 expression among TNBC patients
NPM1 expression more in basal breast cancer than luminal breast cancer samples
NPM-1 regulates YY1 expression which causes suppression of c-FOS expression, hence promoting cell growth
[80, 82,83,84, 86]