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Table 1 Histone chaperones in breast cancer metastasis

From: A three layered histone epigenetics in breast cancer metastasis

S. noHistone chaperoneRole in breast cancer metastasisReferences
1.APLFAPLF over-expression is associated with breast cancer metastasis
Regulate MacroH2A.1 recruitment in EMT specific promoter, EZH2/H3K27me3 level at FOXA1 promoter and recruitment of FOXA1 at CDH1 promoter
[40]
2.HJURPHigher expression in breast cancer metastasis condition
Target of ATM signaling pathway, where it interacts with hMSH5 and NBS1
[43, 44, 46, 47]
3.DAXXDown-regulated in breast cancer metastasis
Forms complex with ATRX in order to maintain H3K9me3 methylation
Negative regulator of c-met
DAXX knockout cells have lower H4 acetylation and higher HDAC2 activity
Binds at the promoter region of RAD51
[50, 52, 53]
4.DEKAct as proto-oncogene
Higher expression in breast cancer metastasis condition
DEK knock down cells has lesser H3K9me3 mark, lower CDH1 expression. Induces metastasis via β-Catenin pathway
Downstream target of RON
Also found to mediate EMT via PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway
Causes angiogenesis via VEGF pathway
[55, 58, 60, 61, 63]
5.ANP32EPositive correlation with breast cancer metastasis
Helps in the removal of H2AZ variants so that FACT can deposit ɣH2AX in response to DDR
Influences E2F1 transcription factor
Regulation by mi-RNA-141
Part of “Landmaine’s six gene signature” for predicting lung metastasis of breast cancer
[69, 71, 73]
6.ASF1ASF1B over-expressed in breast cancer metastasis[75]
7.FACTUpregulated in breast cancer metastasis patient samples[79]
8.NPM1Higher NPM1 expression among TNBC patients
NPM1 expression more in basal breast cancer than luminal breast cancer samples
NPM-1 regulates YY1 expression which causes suppression of c-FOS expression, hence promoting cell growth
[80, 82,83,84, 86]