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Table 2 Clinical effects of aspirin and NSAIDs on BMD and skeletal regeneration

From: Dose-dependent roles of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in abnormal bone remodeling and skeletal regeneration

CategoryNSAIDsUsage and dosageFunction (longest time point, month)Refs.
NSAIDsNSAIDsDaily useNo effect on bone resorption[23]
Regular and incidental useNo effect on bone remodeling[88]
5–7 times/weekModest beneficial effect on BMD, no protective effect on subsequent risk of fractures[87]
COX-2 inhibitorCelecoxib200–400 mg/dayReduces radiographic progression of structural damage of ankylosing spondylitis (24 m)[109]
200 mg/dayNo effect on osteointegration of cementless total hip stems[110]
2 or 4 mg/kg/dayImpairs fracture healing[89]
Acetic acidDiclofenac150 mg/dayInhibits bone resorption[111]
Indomethacin75 mg/dayNo difference in fracture healing grade distribution[112]
100 mg/dayImpairs fracture healing grade[101]
Propionic acidFlurbiprofen200 mg/dayDecreases excellent functional result[113]
2400 mg/dayBone loss around implants (6 m)[91, 92]
1200 mg/dayIncreases bone resorption[90]
Naproxen1000 mg/dayBone defect fill and resorption (9 m)[114]
Flurbiprofen100 mg/dayInhibits periosteal bone formation
Inhibits bone resorption
Enolic acidPiroxicam20 mg/dayNo effect on BMD and fracture healing[116]
  1. NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, BMD bone mineral density