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Table 1 Components of the signaling pathway involved in CRC and their abnormalities

From: Signaling pathways involved in colorectal cancer progression

(Gene/Protein)Observed abnormalities in CRCFrequency in CRCReferences
EGFR/EGFRProtein expression
Mutation
Increased copy number
Increased expression
25–90%
Rare
0–50%
30–90%
[9]
[14]
[5]
K-ras/K-RasActivating mutation30–40%[40]
N-ras/N-RasActivating mutation2.5–4.5%[41]
B-Raf/BRAFActivating mutation (V600E)8%[42]
PIK3CA/PI3KCAActivating mutation (exons 9 and 20)10–20%[46]
PTEN/PTENLoss of protein expression
Mutation
Loss of heterozygosity
20–40%[69]
Components of NOTCHIncreased expression[21]
TGFBR2/TGFBR2Mutation20–30%[48]
TGFBR1/TGFBR1TGFBR1*6A24%[27]
SMAD2/SMAD2Mutation3–6%[68]
SMAD4/SMAD4Mutation20–30%[27]
SMAD3/SMAD3MutationInfrequent[49]
APC/APCMutation80%[40]
CTNNB1/CTNNB1Mutation5–10%[40]
AXIN/AXINMutation6%[55]