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Table 1 Components of the signaling pathway involved in CRC and their abnormalities

From: Signaling pathways involved in colorectal cancer progression

(Gene/Protein) Observed abnormalities in CRC Frequency in CRC References
EGFR/EGFR Protein expression
Mutation
Increased copy number
Increased expression
25–90%
Rare
0–50%
30–90%
[9]
[14]
[5]
K-ras/K-Ras Activating mutation 30–40% [40]
N-ras/N-Ras Activating mutation 2.5–4.5% [41]
B-Raf/BRAF Activating mutation (V600E) 8% [42]
PIK3CA/PI3KCA Activating mutation (exons 9 and 20) 10–20% [46]
PTEN/PTEN Loss of protein expression
Mutation
Loss of heterozygosity
20–40% [69]
Components of NOTCH Increased expression [21]
TGFBR2/TGFBR2 Mutation 20–30% [48]
TGFBR1/TGFBR1 TGFBR1*6A 24% [27]
SMAD2/SMAD2 Mutation 3–6% [68]
SMAD4/SMAD4 Mutation 20–30% [27]
SMAD3/SMAD3 Mutation Infrequent [49]
APC/APC Mutation 80% [40]
CTNNB1/CTNNB1 Mutation 5–10% [40]
AXIN/AXIN Mutation 6% [55]