Identification of the TSPY downstream genes associated with clinical outcomes in primary HCC. a Based on the TSPY expression level, male HCC cases were classified into the TSPY-high group (n = 36, expression count > 50) and the TSPY-silent group (n = 180, expression count = 0). b Survival curves showing that the survival rates of the male TSPY-high group (red), male TSPY-silent group (blue), and female group (gray). Log-rank test P-values are indicated. c Volcano plot representing the DEGs between TSPY-high and TSPY-silent HCC groups (red plots). d The diagram shows the workflow to identify the downstream genes regulated by TSPY in HCC tissues. The genes whose expression levels consistently correlated with the TSPY expression level in both HuH-7 cells and clinical TSPY-high HCC tissue samples were selected as described in the body text. Sixteen genes (red), whose expression patterns correlated with that of TSPY, were identified to be associated with clinical outcomes.