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Table 4 Descriptive analysis of survivors versus non-survivors at 2 years

From: Short-term and long-term outcomes of liver resection for HCC patients with portal vein tumor thrombus

Variable Alive (n = 98) Died (n = 291) P
Age, years 48.9 ± 11.1 47.7 ± 10.4 0.368
Sex 1.000
 Female 11 (11.2%) 34 (11.7%)  
 Male 87 (88.8%) 257 (88.3%)  
Viral marker
 HBsAg positive 87 (89.7%) 266 (92.4%) 0.541
 Anti-HCV positive 0 (0.0%) 2 (0.7%) 1.000
AFP, μg/L 763 (1.2–138,410) 1210 (1.8–777,600) 0.012
AFP, Log 10 μg/L 2.88 (0.08–5.14) 3.08 (0.26–5.89) 0.012
TBIL, mg/dL 0.77 (0.26–1.87) 0.85 (0.30–7.54) 0.024
ALB, g/L 41.6 (17.2–67.2) 40.8 (17.8–65.3) 0.421
PT, s 12.1 (9.9–14.9) 12.4 (9.6–18.0) 0.054
ALT, U/L 42.8 (11.2–187.8) 43.0 (8.7–169.9) 0.875
PLT, 109/L 172 (25.0–405) 151 (25.0–629) 0.148
WBC, 109/L 5.57 (1.80–10.4) 5.44 (1.44–19.4) 0.672
Hemoglobin, g/L 140 (104–174) 141 (75.0–195) 0.984
Child–Pugh class 0.460
 A 97 (99.0%) 283 (97.3%)  
 B 1 (1.0%) 8 (2.7%)  
Radiologic ascites 0.110
 No 94 (95.9%) 262 (90.0%)  
 Mild 4 (4.1%) 29 (10.0%)  
Gastroesophageal varices 0.155
 No 88 (89.8%) 242 (83.2%)  
 Yes 10 (10.2%) 49 (16.8%)  
Radiologic spleen length, cm 11.0 (6.3–16.4) 11.7 (6.3–20.2) 0.005
CSPH 0.010
 No 60 (61.2%) 138 (47.4%)  
 Mild 36 (36.7%) 124 (42.6%)  
 Severe 2 (2.1%) 29 (10.0%)  
Type of hepatectomy 0.130
 En bloc resection 56 (57.1%) 193 (66.3%)  
 Non-en bloc resection 42 (42.9%) 98 (33.7%)  
Operating time, h 2.0 (0.45–20.8) 2.0 (0.45–10.3) 0.488
Hilar clamping time, min 21.0 (0–58.0) 20.0 (0–83.0) 0.334
Intraoperative blood loss, mL 325 (100–3200) 400 (0–45,000) 0.038
Transfusion 0.409
 No 73 (74.5%) 202 (69.4%)  
 Yes 25 (25.5%) 89 (30.6%)  
Surgical margins 0.690
 R0 81 (82.7%) 227 (78.0%)  
 R1 2 (2.0%) 9 (3.1%)  
 Unconfirmed 15 (15.3%) 55 (18.9%)  
Extent of PVTT 0.115
 Left branch 22 (22.4%) 69 (23.7%)  
 Right branch 62 (63.3%) 154 (52.9%)  
 Main trunck/contralateral branch 14 (14.3%) 68 (23.4%)  
Tumor number 0.781
 Solitary 88 (89.8%) 266 (91.4%)  
 Multiple 10 (10.2%) 25 (8.59%)  
Tumor diameter, cm 7.7 (2.0–18.2) 8.8 (0.4–24.0) 0.049
Cirrhosis 0.067
 No 35 (35.7%) 74 (25.4%)  
 Yes 63 (64.3%) 217 (74.6%)  
Tumor differentiation 0.007
 II 11 (11.2%) 9 (3.09%)  
 III 85 (86.7%) 277 (95.2%)  
 IV 2 (2.1%) 5 (1.72%)  
  1. HBsAg hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV hepatitis C virus antibody, AFP α-fetoprotein, TBIL total bilirubin, ALB albumin, PT pro-thrombin time, ALT alanine aminotransferase, PLT platelet count, WBC white blood cell, CSPH clinical significant portal hypertension, PVTT portal vein tumor thrombus