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Table 2 Descriptive analysis of survivors versus non-survivors at 3 months

From: Short-term and long-term outcomes of liver resection for HCC patients with portal vein tumor thrombus

Variable Alive (n = 405) Died (n = 51) P
Age, years 47.8 ± 10.2 48.9 ± 10.6 0.453
Sex 1.000
 Female 44 (10.9%) 6 (11.8%)  
 Male 361 (89.1%) 45 (88.2%)  
Viral marker
 HBsAg positive 370 (92.0%) 49 (98.0%) 0.156
 Anti-HCV positive 3 (0.7%) 0 (0.0%) 1.000
AFP, μg/L 1210 (1.2–276,354) 1210 (2.9–777,600) 0.003
AFP, Log 10 μg/L 3.08 (0.08–5.44) 3.08 (0.46–5.89) 0.003
TBIL, mg/dL 0.79 (0.26–7.54) 0.94 (0.34–7.54) < 0.001
ALB, g/L 40.9 (17.2–67.2) 41.6 (32.4–65.3) 0.799
PT, s 12.2 (9.6–18.0) 12.4 (10.7–18.0) 0.121
ALT, U/L 43.3 (8.7–187.8) 41.3 (9.3–162.1) 0.853
PLT, 109/L 157 (25.0–629) 139 (63.0–358) 0.452
WBC, 109/L 5.51 (1.44–19.4) 5.41 (2.29–10.6) 0.964
Hemoglobin, g/L 141 (94.0–195.0) 146 (75.0–172.0) 0.085
Child–Pugh class 0.266
 A 398 (98.3%) 49 (96.1%)  
 B 7 (1.7%) 2 (3.9%)  
Radiologic ascites 0.003
 No 380 (93.8%) 41 (80.4%)  
 Mild 25 (6.2%) 10 (19.6%)  
Gastroesophageal varices 0.397
 No 341 (84.2%) 40 (78.4%)  
 Yes 64 (15.8%) 11 (21.6%)  
Radiologic spleen length, cm 11.3 (6.3–20.2) 12.0 (8.0–18.9) 0.029
CSPH 0.194
 No 212 (52.3%) 20 (39.2%)  
 Mild 157 (38.8%) 26 (51.0%)  
 Severe 36 (8.9%) 5 (9.8%)  
Type of hepatectomy 0.327
 Enbloc 253 (62.5%) 36 (70.6%)  
 Non-enbloc 152 (37.5%) 15 (29.4%)  
Operating time, h 2.0 (0.45–20.8) 2.0 (0.45–5.7) 0.862
Hilar clamping time, min 20.0 (0–83.0) 20.0 (0–51.0) 0.474
Intraoperative blood loss, mL 400 (0–45,000) 400 (0–8000) 0.598
Transfusion 0.544
 No 291 (71.9%) 34 (66.7%)  
 Yes 114 (28.1%) 17 (33.3%)  
Surgical margins 1.000
 R0 321 (79.3%) 42 (82.3%)  
 R1 15 (3.7%) 1 (2.0%)  
 Unconfirmed 69 (17.0%) 8 (15.7%)  
Extent of PVTT 0.281
 Left branch 95 (23.5%) 7 (13.7%)  
 Right branch 224 (55.3%) 31 (60.8%)  
 Main trunck/contralateral branch 86 (21.2%) 13 (25.5%)  
Tumor number 1.000
 Solitary 366 (90.4%) 46 (90.2%)  
 Multiple 39 (9.6%) 5 (9.8%)  
Tumor diameter, cm 8.0 (0.6–22.0) 10.0 (0.4–24.0) 0.023
Cirrhosis 0.173
 No 121 (29.9%) 10 (19.6%)  
 Yes 284 (70.1%) 41 (80.4%)  
Tumor differentiation 0.612
 II 23 (5.7%) 1 (2.0%)  
 III 375 (92.6%) 49 (96.0%)  
 IV 7 (1.7%) 1 (2.0%)  
  1. HBsAg hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV hepatitis C virus antibody, AFP α-fetoprotein, TBIL total bilirubin, ALB albumin, PT pro-thrombin time, ALT alanine aminotransferase, PLT platelet count, WBC white blood cell, CSPH clinical significant portal hypertension, PVTT portal vein tumor thrombus