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Table 5 The advantage and disadvantage of each type of therapeutics

From: Exosomes: biogenesis, biologic function and clinical potential

Therapeutic application of exosomes Type I Type II Type III
Drugs have been reported to be loaded in exosomes Lipophilic small molecules such as antioxidant, curcumin [143], anticancer agents, Doxorubicin [144, 145] and Paclitaxel (PTX) [103], and a model drug Rhodamine 123 [103], catalase [101], exogenous siRNA [146, 147] PTX [100], Etoposide, Carboplatin, Irinotecan, Epirubicin, and Mitoxantrone [148], Dox, Gentamicin, 5-Fluorouracil, or Carboplatin [108], catalase [149] OVAC1C2 fusion complementary DNA [150], pDNA for catalase [151], GDNF [149], adeno-associated virus capsids [152]
Disadvantages Relatively low loading capacity for already numerous proteins and nucleic acids in them The therapeutic protein maybe degraded in host cells The drug is limited for its encoding DNA should be expressed and sorted into exosomes
/ Or the therapeutic protein should be incorporated into a polymer based nanocontainer before the loading into parental cells /
/ The amount of drugs loaded into exosomes is difficult to estimate for the process of loading procedure /
Advantages Make the quantity, standardization and uniformity of exosomal drug formulations much easier Targeting exosomes to the disease site specifically Exosomes may contain the encoded therapeutic protein, as well as its genetic material (DNA and mRNA)
Common merits Non-cytotoxic effects, a high drug carrying capacity, and a low immunogenic profile