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Table 2 Malignant transformation and tumorigenesis during immortalization of primary cells

From: A prospect of cell immortalization combined with matrix microenvironmental optimization strategy for tissue engineering and regeneration

Immortalization Cell type or animal References
Oncoprotein(s) Human Biliary epithelial cells, fetal keratinocytes, fibroblasts, keratinocytes, mesothelial cells [190, 346,347,348,349]
Animal Chinese hamster embryo fibroblasts, rabbit chondrocytes [191, 350]
Oncoprotein(s) and oncogene(s) Human Colon smooth muscle cells, embryonic esophageal epithelial cell, epidermal keratinocytes, hepatocytes, primary fibroblasts, prostatic epithelial cells, mammary epithelial cells [351,352,353,354,355,356,357,358]
TERT Human Astrocytes [359]
TERT and viral oncoprotein(s) Human Airway (bronchial) epithelial cells, endothelial cells, esophageal epithelial cells, fibroblasts, hematopoietic progenitor cells, mammary epithelial cells, MSCs, ovarian surface epithelial cells [202, 240, 360,361,362,363,364,365,366,367,368]
Animal Bovine adrenocortical cells [369]
TERT and oncogenes Human Mammary epithelial cells, MSCs [370, 371]
Oncoprotein(s), oncogene(s) and growth factors Human Oral keratinocytes [372]
Oncoprotein(s) and chemical carcinogens Human Ectocervical and endocervical cells, oral keratinocytes [373,374,375,376,377]
TERT, oncoprotein and alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 Human Kidney cells [378]