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Table 1 Immortalization of primary cells for therapeutics and research

From: A prospect of cell immortalization combined with matrix microenvironmental optimization strategy for tissue engineering and regeneration

Immortalization Cell type References
Oncoprotein(s) Human Articular chondrocytes, bone marrow endothelial cells, cranial suture progenitors, foreskin keratinocytes, hepatocyte, keratinocytes, liver renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, mammary epithelial cells, marrow stromal cells, nucleus pulposus cells, podocyte cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells, umbilical cord blood endothelial progenitor cells, umbilical vein endothelial cells, uterine cervix epithelial cells [154, 233, 238, 287,288,289,290,291,292,293,294,295,296,297,298,299,300,301,302,303]
  Animal Mouse articular chondrocytes, rat renal proximal tubular epithelial cells [304]
Oncogene(s) Human Prostate epithelial cells, neural precursors, embryonic stem cell-derived MSCs [160, 161, 305]
Oncoprotein(s) and oncogene(s) Human Embryonic fibroblasts, keratinocytes [162, 306]
TERT Human Adipose-derived stromal cells, amnion-derived stem cells, bone marrow-derived MSCs, cementum-lining cells, cord blood MSCs, dermal microvascular endothelial cells, embryonic stem cells, fetal hepatocytes, hepatic stellate scavenger cells, neural progenitor cells, osteoblasts, periodontal ligament progenitor cells, renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, vocal fold fibroblasts [178, 215, 307,308,309,310,311,312,313,314,315,316,317,318]
Animal Mouse temporomandibular joint disc cells [319]
TERT and oncoprotein(s) Human Adipose-derived stromal cells, amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow-derived MSCs, ovarian surface epithelial cells, pancreatic β cells, pancreatic islet cells, periodontal ligament fibroblasts, pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, renal proximal tubule epithelial cells [244, 247, 320,321,322,323,324,325,326,327,328]
  Animal Rat ventricular cardiomyocytes [329]
TERT and oncogene(s) Human Fetal pancreatic epithelial cells, placenta-derived MSCs, adipose-derived stromal cells [246, 330,331,332]
  Animal Bovine germ line stem cells [163]
TERT, oncoprotein(s) and oncogene(s) Human Bone marrow-derived MSCs [333]
TERT and suppression of p53 or Rb pathway Human Mammary epithelial cells, ovarian surface epithelial cells [176, 334, 335]
TERT and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 Human Bronchial epithelial cells [336]
Mutant p53 Human Mammary epithelial cells [337, 338]
Irradiation and oxidative stress Human Mammary epithelial cells [339, 340]
Chemical carcinogens Human Mammary epithelial cells [341]
  Animal Syrian hamster dermal fibroblasts and embryo cells, rat hepatocytes [342,343,344]
TERT and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4-Ig Human Bone marrow-derived MSCs [345]