The new genome engineering and other biotechnology applications of CRISPR/Cas systems. a Robust genome editing with CRISPR/Cas, especially Cas9 in microbe, plant, animal, human cells. b The target sequence enrichment or normalization with Cas9 cleavage in NGS libraries, modified from Ref. . c Usage of sgRNA/RCas effectors (RCas9)-GFP in RNA tracking, localizing and imaging in cells, modified from Ref. . d Combination of PCR and sgRNA/Cas9 cutting followed by A tailing and T adaptor ligation for genotyping, modified from Ref. . e RNA knockdown with RCas effectors (Cas13d) and splicing with catalytically inactivated dCas13d, illustrated according to Ref. . f Multiplex detection achieved by the combination of Cas12a, Cas13a and Cas13b with different cutting behaviours, and naked-eye readout of lateral flow detection, modified from Ref. . g More accurate mutant detection with PCR amplification after enrichment by Cas9 cleavage, illustrated according to Ref. . h crRNA/dCas13b fused with ADARDD (an adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) for RNA editing, modified from Ref.