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Fig. 4 | Cell & Bioscience

Fig. 4

From: All-trans retinoic-acid inhibits heterodimeric bone morphogenetic protein 2/7-stimulated osteoclastogenesis, and resorption activity

Fig. 4

BMP2/7 (5 or 50 ng/ml) ± ATRA (1 µM) modulated osteoclast morphology. ad Representative microscopic image of osteoclast morphology in RAW264.7 cell cultures: a control, b 5 ng/ml BMP2/7, c 50 ng/ml BMP2/7, and d 50 ng/ml BMP2/7 + ATRA group. eg Semi-quantitative analysis of osteoclast morphology: e surface area of osteoclasts, f number of osteoclasts, and g average surface area of an osteoclast. Whitish circular structure with TRACP positive dark brown nuclei is osteoclast. X indicates nil. h Representative images of osteoclasts (multinucleated positive cells) formed in BMM cultures with or with out ATRA±BMP2/7 at day 7. All data are presented as mean ± SD, from three independent experiments. Significant effect of the treatment, *p < 0.05, ****p < 0.0001

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