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Table 1 Comparison of cancer cell properties between cancer, mesenchymal type, epithelial type and neural cells

From: Tumorigenesis as a process of gradual loss of original cell identity and gain of properties of neural precursor/progenitor cells

Cancer cell properties, and genes or pathways regulating the properties Cancer cells Mesenchymal type cells Epithelial type cells Neural precursor/progenitor/stem cells
Marker genesa Around 400 genes with upregulation/activation in cancer, including mesenchymal marker genes and neural progenitor/stem cell marker genes [6] CTNNB1, CDH2, SNAI1, SNAI2, TWIST1, VIMENTIN, ZEB1, ZEB2 CDH1 ABCG2, ASCL1, CTNNB1, BMI1, CDH2, CXCR4, FGFR2, FGFR4, FUT4, GLUT1, HES1, ID2, JAG1, JUN, MSI1, NESTIN, NOTCH1, PDGFRA, ROR2, SNAI1, SOX2, SOX3, SOX9, STAT3, VIMENTIN, ZIC3, etc.
Mobility Mobile, invasive, metastasizes to many tissues Mobile Immobile, adhesive Migratory. innervate most tissues
Cell polarity Loss of polarity upon tumor initiation Loss of polarity Polarized Extensive morphological changes during neural development
Cell cycle/proliferation AURKA, CCND1, CCND2, CCNB1, CCNE1, CDC25A-C, CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, CDT1, E2F1, PCNA, etc No No AURKA, CCND1, CCND2, CCNB1, CCNE1, CDC25A-C, CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, CDT1, E2F1, PCNA, etc
Angiogenesis FGFR1-4, etc No No FGFR1-4, etc
Chemo-resistance ABCB1, ABCG2, IGF2, IGF2BP3, YAP1, etc No No ABCB1, ABCG2, IGF2, IGF2BP3, YAP1, etc
Stemness MYC, POU5F1, SOX2, NESTIN, MSI1, etc No No MYC, POU5F1, SOX2, NESTIN, MSI1, etc
Dysregulated epigenetics DNMT1, HDAC1, HDAC3, EZH2, LSD1, SETD1A, SETDB1, G9A, PRMT1, UTX, PRMT5, JMJD3, JMJD6, JHDM1A/B, WHSC1, etc No No DNMT1, HDAC1, HDAC3, EZH2, LSD1, SETD1A, SETDB1, G9A, PRMT1, UTX, PRMT5, JMJD3, JMJD6, JHDM1A/B, WHSC1, etc
Dysregulated metabolism AKT, FUT4, GLUT1, KRAS, MTOR, MYC, OGT, PDK4, PFKP, PTK2, etc No No AKT, FUT4, GLUT1, KRAS, MTOR, MYC, OGT, PDK4, PFKP, PTK2, etc
Apoptosis evasion BIRC5, HSPA9, MNT, etc. No No BIRC5, HSPA9, MNT, etc
Immuno-escape STAT3 signaling, TGFβ signaling, WNT/CTNNB1 signaling, HIPPO/TAZ signaling, etc No No STAT3 signaling, TGFβ signaling, WNT/CTNNB1 signaling, HIPPO/TAZ signaling, etc
  1. aHere the marker genes for cancer cells do not refer to cancer biomarkers, but refer to the genes that are upregulated/activated or play a promoting role in cancer