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Table 1 The role of DNA methylation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy

From: Diabetic retinopathy: reversibility of epigenetic modifications and new therapeutic targets

Refs Study type DNA methylation
Diabetes Metab [9] Clinical study (serum) Global DNA methylation↑
BMC Med [10] Clinical study (blood) DNA methylation↓ in PDR, differential DNA methylation of 28 CpG sites in 17 genes (AHRR, GIPR, GLRA1, and BCOR)
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci [11] Invitro/animal (STZ diabetic mice)
Retina
DNA methylation of polymerase gamma (POLG1) gene ↑
Lab Invest [13]
Diabetes [12]
Invitro/animal (STZ diabetic mice)
Retina
Dnmt1 binding to Matrix metalloproteinase -9 promoter→MMP↑→5mC↓
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci [14] Invitro/animal study (Bovine retinal endothelial) mtDNA methylation↑