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Table 1 Mutational and multidrug resistant profiles of proteases isolated from HIV-infected patients

From: A fission yeast cell-based system for multidrug resistant HIV-1 proteases

Mutation status Nonsynonymous gene mutations found in the PR gene Known resistance to PI drugs Level of drug resistance to protease inhibitors
WT None None None
M7 V32I, L33I, M36I, I54 V, A71 V, G73S, L90 M IDV, SQV, RTV, NFV, ATV (APV, FOS, LPV, TPV) Low
M10 L10I, I13 V, K20R, L33I, M36I, I54 M, A71T, G73S, I84 V, L90 M APV, FOS, IDV, SQV, RTV, NFV, ATV, TPV (LPV) High
M11 L10F, L33F, M46I, I54L, H69 K, A71 V, G73S, V77I, V82T, I84 V, L90 M APV, FOS, IDV, SQV, RTV, NFV, ATV, TPV (LPV) High
  1. The three mutant HIV-1 PRs were isolated from the plasma samples of HIV-infected patients who were cared at the University of Maryland Medical Center. They carried seven (M7), ten (M10) and eleven (M11) PR gene mutations, respectively. The wildtype (WT) PR was derived from pNL4-3. The drug resistant profiles were generated in a CAP/CLIA accredited hospital laboratory as part of the clinical reports by using the ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System (Abbott Molecular, Chicago, IL). APV, Amprenavir; FOS, Fosamprenavir; IDV, Indinavir; SQV, Saquinavir; LPV, Lopinavir + Ritonavir; RTV, Ritonavir; NFV, Nelfinavir; ATV, Atazanavir; TPV, Tipranavir; Drugs in parenthesis indicate possible drug resistance