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Fig. 3 | Cell & Bioscience

Fig. 3

From: A fission yeast cell-based system for multidrug resistant HIV-1 proteases

Fig. 3

HIV-1 mdrPR induce oxidative stress and alteration of mitochondrial morphologies. Both of the wtPR and mdrPRs induced oxidative stress a and mitochondrial morphological changes b in fission yeast. Unlike the wtPR, the effects induced by mdrPRs were resistant to IDV. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by a ROS indicator dye DHE (a). The induction of ROS was shown by increased and visible staining of DHE. The mitochondrial morphologies (b) were visualized by staining of the fission yeast cells with a mitochondria-specific fluorescent probe DASPMI [29, 41]. Note that normal mitochondria typically appear like threads or necklaces constituted with multiple small dots concentrated around the edge, or as a tubular network extended along the cell peripheries. Changes in the mitochondrial morphologies were shown here as different sizes of mitochondrial aggregates that were situated almost randomly throughout mdr PR-expressing cells. 100 µg/ml of IDV was added before gene induction of all PR-expressing cells. All cells were imaged 24 h after the gene induction

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