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Table 1 The pros and cons of different genome editing technologies in C. elegans

From: Targeted genome engineering in Caenorhabditis elegans

  Cre/loxP and FLP/FRT MosTIC ZFN TALEN CRISPR
Functional enzyme Cre recombinase and FLP flippase Mos1 transposase Customized fokI Customized fokI Cas9
Recognition Protein-DNA Protein-DNA Protein-DNA Protein-DNA RNA-DNA
Mechanism of action DNA recombination Mos1 transposon elimination Induce DSBs Induce DSBs Induce DSBs
Sequence limit LoxP or FRT sequence Mos1 transposon No No PAM motif
Genetic background Strain with extrachromosomal array Mos1 insertion strain Any Any Any
Specificity design Targeted sequence flanked by LoxP or FRT sites Targeted modifications within repair templates Zinc finger modules, each binds to a particular nucleotide triplet TALE modules with each binds to a single nucleotide The first 20-nt of the sgRNA
Application Conditionally regulate gene expression, remove co-integrated selection markers Precise sequence alterations Gene KO Gene KO, conditional gene KO and precise sequence alterations Gene KO, conditional gene KO, precise sequence alterations and chromosomal engineering