Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Effects of thyroid hormone and cold exposures on biochemical and transcriptional changes in the liver of L. catesbeianus tadpoles

From: Cold temperature blocks thyroid hormone-induced changes in lipid and energy metabolism in the liver of Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles

Treatment Possible events Biochemical and transcriptional changes
T3(+) at 26 °C
 (Enhancement) Tail regression Tail height↓, body weight (7d)↓, body length (7d)↓, tail length (7d)↓
T3-response genes thrb↑, nfic↑, thibz↑, dio3 (3d)↑, mmp11↑
Remodeling of membrane lipids Unsaturated ω-3 and ω-6 FAs (3d)↓, UI↓, 20:5n-3 (7d) ↓, elovl3 (3d)↑, elovl5↑
Lipogenesis (FA synthesis) srebp1 (7d)↑, fas↑
Glycogenolysis? Plasma glucose (7d)↑
Mitochondrial activity Mitochondrial protein (7d)↑, cox4 (7d)↑
 (Suppression) Lipolysis (β-oxidation) ppara (3d)↓, acaa2 (3d)↓
Lipogenesis (sterol synthesis) sc4mol (3d) ↓
T3(−) at 4 °C
 (Enhancement) Remodeling of membrane lipids Unsaturated ω-6 FAs↓, MUFA/SFA (3d)↑, 20:4n-6 (7d) ↓, ω-3 FAs/ω-6 FAs (7d)↑, scd1 (3d)↑, elovl1 (3d)↑, elovl2 (7d)↑, pcyt1 (3d)↑, pcyt2 (3d)↑, pemt (3d)↑, psd1 (3d)↓, pparg (7d)↑
Sterol synthesis srebp2 (3d)↑, ldlr1 (3d)↑, hmgcr↑, cyp7a1↓, soat1 (7d)↑
Lipolysis (β-oxidation) ppara (3d)↓, acadl (3d)↑, CTP↑
Gluconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis/TG/FA cycle Plasma glucose (3d)↑, TG (3d)↑, TG/Chol↑, FFA (7d)↑, pygl↑, g6pc2↑, pck1 (3d)↑, mdh (3d)↑
Mitochondrial activity 18:1n-9 in PG↑, mitochondrial protein↑, COX (3d)↑, CPT↑
T3(+) at 4 °C
 (Enhancement) Remodeling of membrane lipids Unsaturated ω-6 FAs (3d)↓, MUFA/SFA (3d)↑, 18:1n-9 (3d)↑, 20:4n-6 (7d) ↓, ω-3 FAs/ω-6 FAs (7d)↑, scd1↑, elovl1 (3d)↑, elovl2 (7d)↑, pcyt1 (3d)↑, pcyt2 (3d)↑, pemt (3d)↑, psd1 (3d)↓, pparg (7d)↑
Sterol and ceramide synthesis hsd17b12 (3d)↑, cers↑, soat1↑, cyp7a1↓, hmgcr (7d)↑, hsd3b7 (7d)↑, ldlr1 (7d)↑, pparg (7d)↑
Lipolysis (β-oxidation) ppara (3d)↓, cpt1a (7d)↑, CPT↑
Gluconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis/TG/FA cycle TG (3d)↑, TG/Chol↑, pygl↑, g6pc2↑, mdh (3d)↑
Mitochondrial activity 18:1n-9 in PG↑, mitochondrial protein↑, COX (3d)↑, CPT↑
 (Unclear) FA/TG synthesis dgat1 (3d)↓, accb (7d)↑
  1. No parenthesis of the column “Biochemical and transcriptional changes” indicates significant changes on both day 3 and day 7. Gene names are shown in Additional file 5: Table S3.
  2. Chol cholesterol, COX cytochrome c oxidase, CPT carnitine palmitoyltransferase, FA fatty acid, FFA free fatty acid, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acid, PG phosphatidylglycerol, SFA saturated fatty acid, TG triglyceride, UI unsaturation index. Parentheses indicate the day showing signifcant changes: 3d on day 3, 7d on day 7