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Table 1 Deposition of specific covalent histone modifications at particular stages of the transcription activation cycle

From: On the way of revealing coactivator complexes cross-talk during transcriptional activation

Type of modification Stage of transcription cycle Real or predicted effect on transcription activation References
Methylation
 H3K4Me3 Repressor removal Stabilization of NURF complex at the promoter [9]
GTFs recruitment Stabilization of TFIID, enhances PIC formation and promoter clearance [1921]
Productive elongation Promotion of elongation at ATX1/AtCOMPASS–like regulated genes [22, 32]
 H3R17Me2 Activator recruitment Association of TBP and TFIIA, definition of transcriptionally engaged promoter [15, 16]
 H3K36Me3 Productive elongation Maintenance of hyper-phosphorylated Pol II, hypo-acetylation of the coding region [31, 32]
  Suppression of histone exchange, regulation of alternative splicing  
 H4R3Me2 Activator recruitment Mobilization of the HATs and HMTs, definition of transcriptional competence [15, 16]
Acetylation
 H3K9Ac GTFs recruitment Stabilization of TFIID [20, 29, 30]
 H3K14Ac Activator recruitment Mobilization of the HATs and HMTs; TFIID recruitment [15, 20, 29]
 H4R3Ac Activator recruitment Mobilization of the HATs and HMTs [15]
 H4K16Ac GTFs recruitment Stabilization of TFIID [15]
Phosphorylation
 H1P Repressor removal Removal of histone H1 from the promoter [9]
 H3S10P Repressor removal Participation in primary rounds of chromatin remodeling [9]
Productive elongation Facilitation of RNAP II release from promoter-proximal pausing [33]
Ubiquitination
 H2BK120Ub Transcription repression Stabilization of promoter nucleosomes [37]
Productive elongation Stimulation of the Pol II elongation [3436]