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Table 1 Morphological changes of small intestines and biochemical changes of plasma parameters in fed, fasted and refed Xenopus laevis

From: Morphological, biochemical, transcriptional and epigenetic responses to fasting and refeeding in intestine of Xenopus laevis

  Fed group Fasted group Refed group
22 days 22 days 5 months 1 day after
21 days fasting
Sample number of group (n) 8 8 6 8
Body weight (g)
 Start of experiment 51.10 ± 2.74 51.39 ± 1.32 53.75 ± 3.01 52.69 ± 1.33
 End of experiment 55.03 ± 3.05 48.30 ± 1.13 45.75 ± 3.10 49.65 ± 1.94
Intestine
 Wet weight (g) 0.54 ± 0.06a 0.28 ± 0.01b 0.22 ± 0.01 0.41 ± 0.03c
 Length (cm) 5.50 ± 0.34 4.80 ± 0.29 5.05 ± 0.38 5.21 ± 0.32
 Diameter (mm) 2.64 ± 0.27 2.21 ± 0.12 1.87 ± 0.07 2.40 ± 0.14
 Outer diameter of mucosa/submucosa layer (mm) 2.26 ± 0.29 1.76 ± 0.10 1.45 ± 0.08 2.01 ± 0.09
 Circumference of epitherial layer (mm) 35.01 ± 4.26a 19.83 ± 1.67b 13.88 ± 2.18 24.52 ± 4.22a, b
 Muscularis externa width (mm) 0.19 ± 0.02 0.22 ± 0.02 0.21 ± 0.01 0.20 ± 0.03
 Number of goblet cells/mm 68.12 ± 4.21 55.06 ± 13.42 48.2 ± 3.95 49.15 ± 9.69
 Protein content (mg/g wet whight) 114.5 ± 7.02 102.8 ± 9.88 Not determined 99.41 ± 8.16
 Number of throughs in a villus-trough unit 4.64 ± 0.88a 2.77 ± 0.43a 2.71 ± 0.19 7.97 ± 1.43b
 Total troughs/section 62.25 ± 6.23a 30.42 ± 5.55b 26.11 ± 2.68 80.96 ± 7.45a
Blood
 Glucose (mg/dL) 44.55 ± 4.08a 28.38 ± 5.35b 41.52 ± 3.71 31.02 ± 3.25b
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) 242.19 ± 51.82a 107.45 ± 14.30b 65.33 ± 16.15 141.00 ± 18.89a, b
 Cholesterol (mg/dL) 173.97 ± 27.99 120.57 ± 16.44 141.00 ± 26.91 122.00 ± 13.80
 Free fatty acid (mEq/L) 0.93 ± 0.08a 0.49 ± 0.05b 0.35 ± 0.06 0.62 ± 0.12b
  1. Values presented are mean ± SEM (n = 8). Different letters (a, b and c) indicate significant differences between the groups (p < 0.05)
  2. The data of the fasted group for 5 months are excluded from the statistical analysis